Inkerman. Cave monastery and fortress Kalamita
Imagine a high steep slopes of the hills are like a knife, cut huge slices, leaving a straight rock wall. And under the walls of the roads, houses ... Here the railway embankment and crosses churches, and on top, on a hill, high ruins of ancient fortresses. It looks very impressive. I even thought to go or not go. But everything happened by itself. Since I returned from Yalta to Sevastopol highway, Sevastopol decided to go round the district and from afar, not far from the road saw the ruins of the fortress Kalamita (before I saw them in the photo). So I realized that I got to Inkerman.
Fortress Kalamita. Gate tower and tower number 2
Monastery of St. Clement. Trinity Church
Plans Kalamita fortress and monastery (klykabelni). The second scheme is a guide: Crimea эkskursyonnыy. Virtual Tours. 50 popular routes. - Edition of "Bibleks", 2009.
Inkerman is situated near the mouth of Black River (where it forms a bay). Until 1991 this city was called Bilokamyensk, and from 1957 to 1976 it was all part of Sevastopol. Although a separate settlement existed here long before founded Sevastopol. It was called Kalamita and was a great fortress of the Greek Byzantine principality Theodoro.
Theodore, as a separate state, emerged in the 12th century. The capital city of the principality was Mangup. It stirred a constant struggle with Genoa colonies, for the right to own pivdennokrymskym coast. With the rising principality guarded fortress Funa, from the West - Kalamita. Last time was considered the main trading port and principality, although the port is situated at the mouth of Black about a kilometer from the castle, was called Avlita.
Toponym "Kalamita" translate differently. From the Greek it is "beautiful cape" from the Greek - "cane", although there are other interpretations.
Gate tower and tower number 2
Fortress Kalamita and lodging beneath its walls were large dump in trade south of the north. Therefore, the Genoese felt Kalamitu dangerous competitor to its own port, which was located in Chembalo (now Balaklava). They repeatedly attacked the fortress feodorytiv and even captured and burned it in 1433 year. Theodoro and repelled Kalamitu rebuilt, but in 1475 the Turks captured the fortress and it has long Turkish.
Turks has rebuilt the fortress and renamed it. The new name - Inkerman ("mountain fortress") was a fortress with a large number of caves located around. Caves, these were mostly artificial, formed by extraction of white stone.
Fortress Kalamita and Turkish Inkerman - very different fortifications. Kalamita had thin walls (thickness of about a meter), which covers that thin parapet. The soldiers moved along the walls of a wooden platform. The fortress had five rectangular napivbasht. Moore and napivbashty have been executed in limy solution. Rowe were absent.
Turks has rebuilt the castle. Moore potovschyly twice (in the outer side), napivbashty also strengthened and closed from the back side, cut down dry moat, barbican built. Above the tunnel gate was built artillery casemate.
The current Kalamita - a dilapidated tower and worthless remnants of walls, shallow stone trench from cave-casemates and a large wooden cross at the spot where once stood a church. There is a cave monastery, just below the fortress, but about it later. All this with one hand under the mountain, surrounds railway embankment, on the other - deep terraced pit. Although looks Kalamita not cloudy. Here are sad and lifeless ruins, and these cheerful and optimistic. Romantic.
Rock, on which stand the remains of the fortress, now called the monastery. Fortress hedge extreme limits of the rock out of the sides, where it is accessible to pedestrians. And from the cliffs to climb the slope is not possible, so there is no fortifications.
The road to the castle is now passing through a tunnel under the railway embankment. Then it rapidly through the old cemetery deretsya up and rests in the Gate Tower, which stands on the edge of precipices bahatometrovoho. The next tower (№ 2) is 12 meters from the Gate. From the beginning it carved in stone dry moat-trap of the cave, which served as such a pillboxes.
Tower number 3 corner, so it is very powerful and has dimensions 12h13 meters in the plan. Features of its construction it is difficult to understand, because tower is spoiling (almost completely). Tower is the forward line the walls and had flankuvaty ditch.
Barbican (tower number 4)
Tower number 4 the best preserved, so it is most interesting. The ruling by the moat, the tower acted as barbican and was virtually independent fortress building. With its main wall connecting the wall, laid across the ditch. Top of this wall of soldiers could move from the tower to the castle and back. In the 18th century tower number 4 located prison. Previously it was two more towers, but few of them left.
Also in Kalamitu are the remains (actually only foundations), the medieval Christian church. We built it feodoryty, well, probably destroyed by the Turks, although it is not known exactly.
In the 17th century Inkerman turned into a great city and great shopping center. Through him there was trade with the South Coast of Crimea. Fortress at the time were very strong, but it could seize and destroy the Cossacks (but who - unknown). Then, of course, the castle rebuilt.
In 1773 zyomochna Party of Russian warships led by navigator I. Baturina, was the first plan of Inkerman. According to the plan inside the fortress were seven houses, and around her stood another 50 houses, united in eight quarters. Under the mountain village was located with the same name as the fortress - Inkerman. It was another 30 houses.
The regular Russian troops first appeared in the spring of Inkerman in 1777. They stayed here for two years. Under the guidance of legendary General Suvorov Russians have built a number of coastal batteries (incl. in and Inkerman). But in 1779 the army of Suvorov left Inkerman, and destroyed the fortifications (to not got to the Turks).
The ruins of the fortress Kalamita (German photo 1942)
After joining the Crimea to Russia in 1783 Inkerman fortress lost its importance, although it still features military had to perform. So in the years 1854-1856, during the Crimean War and the heroic defense of Sevastopol, was Kalamita foothold Inkerman position of Russian troops. And during the second defense of Sevastopol during the Great Patriotic War on the monastery hill steadily held the position of fighters 25th Chapayevsk strilkovoi Division. At the foot of the mountain, the monastery of Saint Clement is now a monument to the heroic archers.
Monastic rock riddled with large number of caves. In one of them still in 7-9 centuries was founded monastery of St. Clement the Pope. This saint was one of the first popes and died a martyr's death at the hands of the Chersonese Roman soldiers emperor Trajan (it drowned, tied to stone anchors).
The monastery consisted of three cave temples, the largest of which was the church of St. Clement. There was a monastery in 1485. Then, under pressure from the Turkish garrison of Inkerman, the monks left the monastery.
Monastery of St. Clement now and in the early twentieth century.
In 1852 at the initiative of Archbishop Innokenty in caves again opened a small monastery - Inkerman kinoviyu in the name of St. Clement. At the time of the Crimean War the monastery was closed again, but was revived in 1867. Then restored the three cave church, built above ground church - Trinity, and erected a house prior. Later, after the miraculous salvation of the Emperor Alexander III, under the mountain built another temple ground - St. Panteleimon, and in 1907 the Monastery on top of the mountain in memory of the Crimean War built the church of St. Nicholas. This church has not survived, although the German defense of Sevastopol photo period (probably 1942) the ruins of the church still stands as the ruins of several buildings.
From the cave temples on the mountain were Monastyrysk prorubani unique in the rock stairs. They exist today.
Monastery of St. Clement
The monastic complex of monks returned after the Soviet collapse. Began restoration of the monastery. Church of the Holy Trinity and restored prior quarters. Destroyed during the Soviet period the temple of St. Panteleimon rebuilt "from scratch". Restoration work conducted in the cave temples.
It was in the monastery of another church - St. Yevhrafiya. To establish this temple in the 13th century and early 20th - restored. But in the Soviet period, during the development of limestone quarry, a unique temple with the remains of medieval frescoes, completely covered with soil.
The complex of the monastery of St. Clement and Kalamita castle, located above the monastery, is a very interesting and spectacular tourist attraction. On occasion must go! We recommend.