Duke

The monument to Duke

Armand Emmanuel du Plessis (the Duke de Richelieu)

born in 1766.

At 24, he, as a volunteer, took part in the storming of Izmail, and five years later, long settled in Russia. In 1803, Richelieu became governor-general of Odessa.

Locals call it "our Duke" and considered the founder of the city, although by that time Odessa has been for 8 years. Through the efforts of the new mayor of the city became a major trading port.

When the Bourbons returned to the throne, Duke, as a staunch monarchist and goes to France to head the government of Louis XVIII. Died May 16, 1822 at the age of 56 years in Paris.

Having received the sad news from Paris, Count Langeron appealed to the people to start collecting funds for the construction of the monument of Richelieu. Who took in May 1823 for the post of governor-general of Novorossiisk, Earl, MS Vorontsov ordered a monument to the famous sculptor of IP Martos (author of the monument to Minin and Pozharsky). Petersburg wizard casting Affairs Efimov were cast in bronze statue of Richelieu in a Roman toga, and three brass bas-relief, representing agriculture, commerce and justice.

The pedestal of the monument - architect A. Melnikov. Granite was brought from the Voznesensk. Pink granite donated Kherson landowner Skaroninsky.

The discovery of bronze monument to Duke, as affectionately referred to as generations of Odessa Armand Emmanuel Septimania Sophia du Plessis de Richelieu, was held on April 22, 1828. Without it, the monument is the hallmark of the city today is unthinkable Odessa. And who knows what would our city, do not set foot on land once it amazing, mysterious Frenchman, ascetic, and philanthropist Richelieu.

Twenty-fifth of September 2006 marked the 240th anniversary of the birth of the governor-general of the Novorossiysk Territory governor of Odessa Duke of Richelieu.
As the fifth representative of the ducal house of Richelieu, Armand Emmanuel accounted pravnuchatym nephew of the founder of the house, the famous cardinal at the court of Louis XIII.

The news of the capture of the Bastille the people July 14, 1789 the young duke met with joy. However, subsequent events, the impending chaos of anarchy changed his views on revolution. In autumn 1790, while in Vienna with a friend Langeron, who was by then already in the Russian service, Richelieu learns of the impending storm of Ishmael. The young officers willing to participate in this historic battle. Chief of the Russian Army, Prince GA Potemkin appointed friends in the squad, member of the rowing fleet I. de Ribas.

Storming of the Russian troops in December 1790 under the command of A. Suvorov's success. Ismail was taken. Richelieu courage in this battle did not go unnoticed. For his courageous and skillful actions he was awarded the George Cross 4th degree and a gold sword.


A year later the duke again sent officially to the Russian service. Then - again leaving for Paris, and again - St. Petersburg, now at the invitation of Emperor Alexander I. Russian king offered the choice of the Duke of a number of significant positions, of which Richelieu chose the position of mayor of Odessa. By the time the newly created city was only eight years old, but the Russian government gave him a special significance as the main port for the Russian foreign trade in the Black Sea.


In March 1803 the Duke of Richelieu arrived in Odessa, whose population at that time amounted to nine thousand. Over 11 years of Richelieu city has changed beyond recognition. French merchant, a friend and associate of Richelieu wrote in his book "Letters of Odessa":
"Surrounded by a non-empty steppes treated, this city ... built on the beach, which was considered the most dangerous, has become in so short a time the most prosperous city in Europe. "


When Richelieu rapidly increased trading activity of Odessa port. Among his initiatives - promotion of trade, population growth, improvement of agriculture, the establishment of industry, development of education, science and culture. He strove for the harmonious development of the young city. Already in 1804, Richelieu obtained the right to open a school in Odessa and Commercial College, a number of private pensions. When it was founded by a noble institution that served as the basis for opening in 1817, Richelieu Lyceum. By his order the renowned architect Tom de Thomon creates a project of the theater building, completed in 1809. In his spare time he went around town and port, inspected the work, attended arrivals in quarantine, urging them to settle in Odessa. Personally knew all the merchants. The efficiency of Richelieu was amazing. He had no secretary, and took all the papers, read and answered them himself. Easily switched from Russian into English, German, Italian or French.


Historian A. Skalkovsky writes that around Richelieu "... shone, all unheard of boiling activity. He was quiet, gentle and indefatigable. Health had an iron. One only removes it from the patient - it's bad treatment of the trees that he planted on almost all streets. "


During the plague (in 1812), the Richelieu, previously intended to go into the army, remained in Odessa, and subjecting his life to mortal danger, the townspeople support the fight against this scourge.


After the defeat of Napoleon (in 1814), restore the rule of the Bourbons, Louis XVIII offers numerous personal requests and Alexander I, Richelieu returned to Paris and became Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister of France.

September 26, 1814 residents of Odessa accompanied his governor. However, even being on the highest rung of the government hierarchy, Richelieu wished to return here and spend the rest of his days in the city in which he admitted, were the best years of his life.

Six years later, leaving government service in January 1822 in a letter he said that he intends to return to Odessa in the summer. But May 16, 1822 at the age of 56 years, Armand Emmanuel Richelieu died from a brain haemorrhage.

Having received the sad news from Paris, Count Langeron appeals to people to start collecting funds for the construction of the monument of Richelieu. Who took in May 1823 for the post of governor-general of Novorossiisk, Earl, MS Vorontsov orders monument sculptor known IP Martos (author of the monument to Minin and Pozharsky). Petersburg wizard casting Affairs Efimov were cast in bronze statue of Richelieu in a Roman toga, and three brass bas-relief, representing agriculture, commerce and justice. Unveiling of the monument to Duke, as affectionately referred to as generations of Odessa Armand Emmanuel Septimania Sophia du Plessis de Richelieu, was held on April 22, 1828. Without it, the monument is the hallmark of the city today is unthinkable Odessa. And who knows what would our city, do not set foot on land once it amazing, mysterious Frenchman, ascetic, and philanthropist Richelieu.