National Reserve-island "Khortytsya"

Island "Khortytsya" is the largest island on the Dnieper, which is unique in a rare combination in the same area a variety of natural systems - virgin steppes, and floodland ravine forests, rock vegetation, rare and endangered species, historic geology ...

Act, is extremely necessary, but somewhat delayed, justice has become of the land status of natural monuments of local importance (1958). Next - nature monument of republican value (1963). Natural (with the decorative, the island took refuge more than 1,000 species) and historical (reported here about hundreds of historical and archaeological sites) exclusivity Khortitsa gave grounds for declaring it the State Historical and Cultural Museum (1965r.). Now the whole island is a National Reserve (since 1993)..



The basis of the largest island on the Dnipro (length 12 and width, on average, 2.5 kilometers) are granites and gneisses, which about 2 billion years. They, zdiymayuchys as rocks in the northern part of the island, up to thirty meters above the Dnieper, create this mountainous country in miniature. Geographically, the same accumulation of rocks, caves, grottoes, some boulders, representing a mountain landscape areas such as Ukraine. The most noticeable peaks have their names, whose history is closely connected with the Cossack period. In particular, the Chairman of the High Rock, Rock Dumnyi, Sovutina, black, stupid, Middle Head.

On Khortitsa in miniature presented samples of all landscape zones of Ukraine. Until modern times steppe areas lucky enough to survive, especially on the eastern slopes, along the Old Dnieper. Number of species that have found refuge in the ancient steppe areas, more than 600 species (for comparison, Askaniyskoy desert about 600 species of plants in Homutivskomu - 528, on stone tombs - 460 on Michael virgin - 490).



Gully and ravine that pomerezhyly steppe slopes, too, are a registered pedigree from Cossacks: Naumova, Kostina, Shantsev, Hromushyna, Muzychyna United Molodnyaga, Korniyeva, Hannivka, Kruten'ke, Zmiivka, Dull Yar ...

Southernmost, floodland part of the island, perhaps the youngest species Khortyts'ka landscape. This is mainly alluvial area (formed under the influence Dniprova flow), which emerged about 3-4 thousand years ago. In nutrient-rich soils zdiynyalysya shrubs, trees and, of course grass. After basking floodland country that once stretched from Khortitsa to Kherson, was destroyed (trees and shrubs cut down, and the earth was down Kakhovka reservoir), the South Island ohvistya incomprehensibly increased.



Now this little corner (327 acres - about the eighth part of the island) is truly no cost. At one time Kakhovska flood filled some ulohovynky here, and the known ages of five lakes were added more than a dozen tiny reservoirs, where water lilies delight white, yellow jugs, cattail, reed, bulrush, sedge, iris, water nut.



If rapid Kakhovsky "sea", Khortyts'ka lake due to its usamitnenosti, became the main spawning grounds (where live about 50 species) in this part of the Dnieper. In swamps and around their lives more than 200 species of birds (all in Ukraine to just over 300 species), about 30 species of mammals and reptiles, living in lakes world's smallest (in diameter - within centimeters) type of fern - salviniya floating.



History of Cossacks

Museum of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks on the island is open year 14.10.83. But when on the Ukrainian steppe Knights aloud, to the same publicly forbidden to speak, this institution called the Museum of History Zaporozhye. Today, under the codes of the Museum collected more than 30,000 items, covering the historical period from the Palaeolithic to the nineteenth century the current era. The exhibition is complemented four dioramas.



Feature Khortyts'ka Museum is that, firstly, very originally designed this building: Granite plates, adjusted to each other, creating the impression that visitors move cave, the walls of which are silent relics of various eras and epochs.


Secondly, the vast majority of items collected, found at Khortytsia and Khortyts'ka environment. This stone tools, pottery, guns, anchors, fragments of ancient ships, oak barrel, which was felled a few years ago and the same lay on Dniprova days.



Exhibition area, developed at the 1600 square meters, in addition to artifacts, as it were of local origin, is also filled with material transferred from Lviv, Luhansk, Rivne and other museums, as well as revenues from archaeological and ethnographic expeditions.



"Protovche"

Excavations conducted by archaeologists of the reserve during 1976-1980 years, giving reason to believe a certain way, that one of the prototypes Sich, its forerunner, existed on Khortitsa near floodland part, close to lakes and Osokorove Korzheve. For it is here found a military settlement X-XIV centuries, and some finds (weapons, ceramics) indicate that the roots reached deeper into a unique object for several centuries. In the five studied napivzemlyankah (archaeologists call them confidently booth (!)) Lived defenders not only Khortitsa, but also of the southern borders of the proto-state groups.



Findings from the village Protovchoho occupied a worthy and significant place in the Museum of History of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, and where was this settlement, created a memorial and tourist complex.



"Scythian state"

In the early twentieth century Khortitsa was 129 mounds, but up to now survived only about two dozen. Mounds (the oldest of them built by representatives of Bronze Age cultures in the third millennium BC, and the youngest - the Scythians in the third century BC) were placed in several groups of mounds at the roadside so-called Scythian way, once passed along its median Khortitsa , the upper part.



There were eleven burial complex - "live", reconstructed and stylized. In ancient mounds installed sculptures, stelae and just humanoid stele Bronze Age.

 

A natural complement to the area restored historical landscape Khortitsa (Khortyts'ka action to restore mass burial mounds became the first in Ukraine) is a museum of stone artifacts, deployed in one of the corners of the complex. Exhibits open-air museum - harmany, mortars, troughs, millstones, sculpture, stone pillars and crosses - found in the surrounding villages and brought to Hortitsu during March-May 2006.



Memorial and tourist complex "Scythian state" ("Visual Tomb") is about five acres. Together with the adjacent oak nuts and lots Pershostepu he is an amazing environment, which is visiting, a man not only receives information, but also aesthetic pleasure. With Cossack watchtower opened landscape within a radius of 25 kilometers.



"Taras Path"

 

 

Summer 1843 29-year-old Shevchenko traveled to Ukraine, visited Aleksandrovsk, visited Khortitsa. In May 2005, with the help of local historians, defined route, which went on Khortitsa poet and decorated his seven granite blocks. At block carved lines of the works of the Great Poet, citing Khortytsya and Big Lug Zaporozhska. Thus, there was a memorial and tourist route "Tarasova trail" that loved zaporizhtsyam and guests and Khortitsa.



Historical-cultural complex "Zaporizhzhya Sich"

Construction of historical and cultural complex "Zaporizhzhya Sich" was officially opened 14 October 2004, the feast of the Holy Virgin, on the Day of Ukrainian Cossacks.



The total area of historical and cultural complex of 3.5 acres. A placement of our "Zaporizhzhya Sich" selected the picturesque north-east coast Khortitsa offering a magnificent view of the Dnipro, rocks and islands that resemble the old fierce Dnipro rapids. In planning the complex is divided into two parts riznovelyki - "Inner Kiss" and "Suburbs".

Total on campus "ZaporizhzhyaJanuary" will be built 23 log and framed and turluchnyh buildings. It is assumed that together function as objects of the exposition purposes, which will play a Cossack interiors of dwellings (house and cottage Cossack chieftain), and formal educational institutions (military office and Sichova school). The dominant feature of the complex will be three dome church of the Holy Virgin. Buildings "External Koshu" should be recreational (tavern) and the interactive nature of (the present smithy and pottery production). For examples of fortifications Cossack time ruled by three towers, moats and earthen rampart with a palisade.