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Dubno Castle

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Written by Administrator

Posted on 17 November 2011

Last Updated 17 November 2011

Dubno Castle

 The ancient castle walls Dubensky remember raids of Crimean Tatars in the XV century, attacks Cossack units Krivonosa Maxim and the Russian army in XVII. They remained intact during the Northern War of 1700-1721 years, Tadeusz Kosciuszko uprising of the late eighteenth century and the French-Russian War of 1812. There were Hetman Ivan Mazepa, the Swedish King Charles XII, King Peter, commanders Suvorov and Kutuzov.

 It retained its rich treasures of princes Ostroz'ki, and then - and the descendants of Ostrog ordination: Prince Zaslavsky, Sangushky, Lyubomirsciy. Here, guarded banners ordynatskoho troops safely stored priceless family archives of these powers. Here were lyudvysarnya - casting workshop, where guns were made, cult thing for churches and monasteries. Castle and now keeps secrets and legends of centuries.

 In the XIV century in the village Duben, which included then Ostrog District Fedor Ostrog built a small wooden door. Prince Konstantin Ostrozkyi saw the prospect of Dubna as a town and in 1492 th lifted a stone castle.

 In 1507 King Sigismund the First Polish residents gave Dubna "Magdeburg Rights" and its owner Ostrozky permission to build fortifications for defense against enemies, to hold fairs and auctions and collect fees from visiting merchants.

 Prince Konstantin of Ostrog only orthodox princes, who was awarded the highest post of Hetman of Lithuania. In Dubno castle he kept trophies gained in numerous battles: jewelry, weapons, protective weapons and household items. After the victory over the host of the Moscow Tsar of Orsha in 1514 in the castle appeared in Moscow centaur gun, cannon with the Moscow coat of arms, silver gilded royal mace and other valuables. Prince Constantine liked to demonstrate his famous guests treasure. The walls of several stone castle rooms obbyvaly precious carpets and hung them on the collector's gun. Stored in a special treasure chests in the castle dungeon. The collection was subsequently complemented jewelry, presented to guests Ostrog.

 In the dungeons of the castle, except arms, in case of siege and stored food supplies. These were thousands of pieces of bacon, one hundred barrels of fish, herring, dried meat and honey-flasks with jam, wheat and various grains. Products in specially designed barns are not corrupted themselves for years. In the castle casemate during enemy attacks hiding not only the inhabitants of the castle, but also locals. But underground roads could reach in different parts of the city. In the attack Tatars Dubno castle was completely bound to tin and armor and had huge stocks of food.

 In the "Register of Treasure Castle Princes Ostrog, compiled in 1616" submitted a list of all the things that were kept in storage. This harness, protective arms, which was made exclusively with precious metals and decorated with precious stones, silver and gold dining items. In the castle, and kept a lot of stocks fabrics, fur and, of course, jewelry: tiaras, rings with diamonds and rubies, gold and silver chains. Total wealth, there were 49 boxes. And importantly, in the "Register" food equal to the treasure. As the siege they were valuable.

 The last of the great princely family Ostrozki - Prince Janusz K. - Dubno castle guarded treasures as the memory of his father and grandfather. Especially treasured gold medal with the image of Prince Constantine. Medal - the last lifetime portrait of the old prince. The son always took this relic of a hike. It is stated in the "Register" in 1616.

 Immediately after the death of Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich Janusz Ostrogski founded Ostrog ordination, the capital of which was considered the first jail, and later - Dubno. Janusz Ostrog took care and the strengthening of Dubno castle - fortified castle bastions, two of which have survived to our time. Prisoners Tatars dug a deep ditch. Its walls are filled with white stone. Built a suspension bridge, which is raised every night. So a castle was still neprystupnishym.

 Treasures attracted conquerors. That wealth Dubno castle, historians believe, were the real cause of dozens of enemy attacks to Dubno. So only in 1577, the Tatars tried twice to lock. But to no avail. The first time they came to Dubna in March to take captive daughter Ostrozky Catherine, and get a large ransom for her. Seven days Tatars held the castle under siege, and yet were forced to retreat. Revenge for the failure - 200 burned villages belonging to Ostrog, and devastated the city.

 The second time the Tatars came to the castle in December, when there were preparing for a wedding. Prince Constantine Ostrog published marry his niece Beata Dolska. The sudden appearance caused a stir among the Tatar princely guests. Not scared just Beata. She ran to the tower and shot with guns. And vtsilyla tent in the Crimean Khan. Tatars retreated.

 In 1648 already by Wladyslaw-Dominique Zaglavskaya that knyazyuvav after Janusz Ostrozkogo Dubno Castle tried to take the leading detachment of troops Bohdan Khmelnytsky led by Maxim Kryvonos. The reason - the same treasure. However, seeing the fortification of the fortress, to attack the Cossacks did not dare.

 In 1660 the walls of the castle were the Russian troops boyar Sheremetieva, but the arrival of Crimean Khan Islam-prevented them from completing their intentions.

 Dubno castle survived during the Northern War of 1700 1721rokiv. For the Russian Tsar Peter I, trying to win over Volyn magnates, protected their interests and rights.

 Next Prince - Janusz Sangushco - held in the castle courtyard and large lived in grand style. And then roztrynkuvav and treasures, which he inherited a legacy of Ostrog. Later Sangushco canceled Ostrog ordination. A land divided among several dozen Polish families. Castle Janusz Sangushco neglected, and Dubno gave Stanislav Lyubomirsciy.

 In the second half of XVIII century, under and Michael Stanislaw Lubomirski, Dubno castle began to recover. On the old foundation built the palace of Lubomirski. With great ball and banquet halls. Their dekoruvav known Italian master Domenico Merlin. And still preserved Bacchante and satire, which stood in the dance. During the Contract fairs Lyubomyrskaya part of the palace gave visitors to those could well have fun and relax. Here arranged gambling. They are in one evening may turn rich on the poor and the poor - the rich. In the famous Dubenske contracts that existed 20 years annually would come to 30 thousand people while the population of the city itself was only six and a half thousand. In 1794, contracts were transferred to Zvyagel, and then to Kyiv. They gave the name of the metropolitan area Kontraktova at the hem. A Dubna began to decline.

 Techniques in the palace of Prince Józef Lubomirski arranged in the early nineteenth century, had one of grandeur and magnificence, as per contracts. On the eve of war in 1812 led the garrison was Dubno fortress Kutuzov, whose army was on the border with Austria.

 Józef Lubomirski and his son Marcel lost in maps a large sum of money. And so in 1844 decided to sell Dubno, together with the old family castle military department. Yet Marcel young prince himself sold the city and castle Ural zolotopromyslovtsyu Yakovlev and fled to England.

 Subsequently, the right to Dubno and castle passed to his son Yakovlev, hussar officer of the army. Later bought a castle princess Elizabeth Baryatinsky. A late nineteenth century, it has sold its state treasury. Before World War the castle stationed a battalion 41st infantry regiment Selenhinskoho.

 By the early twentieth century, no one ever could take the castle. Only during the First World War destroyed much of his Austrian artillery. The ruins stood till 1934, until the Polish government was not rebuilt the castle again. By 1939 it housed the Polish state institutions. And during the German occupation of Hungarian deployed. After joining the Red Army in the castle housed the Soviet authorities. In the early 1950's moved here of the military, which lasted until 1986.

 From 1993 Dubno castle is part of the State Historical and Cultural Reserve Dubna. It remains the oldest building in town. And at the entrance gates and still remained the emblem of the princes Ostrog.


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