Salzburg Cathedral is perhaps the most important ecclesiastical buildings of the city and also a religious center. With its magnificent facade and dome of a giant, he is an impressive early Baroque monumental building in the northern territory of the Alps. Its origin is closely connected with the manners and the growth of the spiritual kingdom. Destroyed by fire and again rebuilt, enlarged and expanded, it shows the power and independence of the princes, the Archbishops of Salzburg.
The first building came under Bishop Virgil, who in 767 was in the center of the former Roman town Yuvavum ordered the construction of the Cathedral. 774 September 24, the Cathedral was dedicated to two saints Peter and Rupert. When in 1167 Count von Plain, followers of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, had betrayed the city to fire, the Cathedral was burned to the ground. Only under Archbishop Conrad III. von Wittelsbach, ten years later, the Cathedral was rebuilt - more beautiful, more splendid and more majestic than ever, which is not without reason, was considered the largest Romanesque cathedral in the northern territory of the Alps, whose size exceeded even the Imperial Cathedral in Speyer.
400 years later, on December 11, 1598, fire once again turned to rubble a large portion of the Cathedral. Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich, in connection with the situation, ordered to demolish the damaged cathedral and began to hatch plans for its restoration. Residents of Salzburg was very angry inconsiderate actions of the prince-archbishop, on the order of which were destroyed not only the valuable sculptures and gravestones of the princes, archbishops, and plowed the church cemetery and the remains of the dead thrown in the trash. The arrest and imprisonment in the fortress Hohensalzburg on the pretext of feuds with the Bavaria because of the salt on the orders of his nephew and successor, Markus von Sittikusa Hohenems put a sudden end to the numerous construction plans of Wolf Dietrich. After Wolf Dietrich's death, Prince-Archbishop Markus Sittikus commissioned the architect Santino Solari construction of a new cathedral, which was the first church building in the early Baroque to the northern territory of the Alps. In the midst of the Thirty Years' War, September 25, 1628, the solemn consecration of the Cathedral-Prince Archbishop Lodronom by Paris that the Prince-Archbishop Markus Sittikus is not found alive. Paris Lodron with diplomatic skill saved almost solidly fortified city from the hardships of the Thirty Years' War, so that the consecration of the Cathedral was one of the largest and most magnificent celebrations that Salzburg ever seen. The Napoleonic Wars brought about the end of centuries of domination Salzburg church princes, and after the deprivation of the power of the last Prince-Archbishop Colloredo von Hironimusa the first time the board took over in Salzburg representative of the kind of Habsburg - Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand von III.
In 1944, the bomb destroyed the dome and part of altarnogo premises. After the necessary restoration work in 1959 the Cathedral was brought in former splendor. Three dates with the year on a lattice gate of the Cathedral reminded of the three solemn consecration: "774", "1628" and "1959." Before the main facade are four monumental statues: the Apostles Peter and Paul with a key and a sword, and Salzburg land ammo Rupert and Virgil with a barrel of salt and a model of the church. Two stamp on the front panel indicate the two founders of the Cathedral - Marcus Sittikusa Lodrona and Paris.
Jewels of the Cathedral of Salzburg are considered along with the font, where at one time dubbed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the great main body is surrounded by playing music of the angels and crowned saints Rupert and Virgil, as well as the luxurious master gate Schneider Mantsel, Mathare and Manzu. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as court organist and concertmaster created numerous immortal works of sacred music for Salzburg.
Cathedral Square forms a sort of atrium to the Cathedral. In 1660 the Prince-Archbishop Gvidobald Tung commissioned the architect Giovanni Antonio Dario build the Cathedral arch. In the center column is the Virgin, built in 1766 - 1771's artists Wolfgang and Johann Baptist Hagenauer for the Prince-Archbishop Count Zigizmunda Shrattenbaha.