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Balaclava

Written by Administrator

Posted on 01.04.11

Last Updated 01.04.11

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Cape Aya - precipitous western tip of the South Coast of Crimea, distant from major roads and beaten paths of tourists. To the south-west of Cape Aiya extends the territory of the state landscape reserve "Cape Aya." That is why there remains a pristine and virginity amazing nature. The civilized man has not yet got to the reserved silence of these forests are not managed to saw for souvenirs resinous trunks millennial junipers, trampled meadows with rare orchids and pyltsegolovnikami. And the Crimean "shameless" strawberry tree still strikes our fancy lush greenery of their crowns. No, no, yes and you will see a mountain trail climbs leopard runner entered in 46the Red Data Book of Ukraine. And in coastal waters, deep in their warm embrace, you can still find crabs, mussels and rapanov. Peregrine falcon, eagles, floating in the ocean of the sky, will be announced suddenly a shrill whistle of space, reminding that life is boiling, not only among the sunlit cliffs. Such is the nature reserve, the state landscape reserve "Cape Aya."


50Temple of the Holy Twelve Apostles.


Built in 1794 on the foundations of an ancient temple. Above the entrance was built into the stone with the inscription: "1357 on the day of September, construction started this while driving a humble husband of Simone de Orto, the consul and Castellan. 51On the eve of the Crimean War made rebuilding the temple and 8 June 1875 he was consecrated in the name of St. Nicholas. Under the Soviet government here has consistently posted: Pioneer House, Club, Department of Osoaviohima. In 1990, the project architect of Kiev Yu Lositskogo temple was rebuilt writings of Archimandrite Augustine (+ 1996), while still protoireem Alexander and illuminated by 13 July 1990 in the name of the holy Twelve Apostles. Parish Feast - June 30 (June 13). In the church kept relics of the holy St. Sergius, St. Basil the Blessed and holy svyaschenomuchennika Clement of Rome. Vicar - Superior Boris. The temple is a farmstead Inkerman Monastery of St. Clement.


Museum of the Cold War. Underground submarine base. 55

The biggest Black Sea Combo, anti-nuclear, fortifications and shelters for the repair of submarines. Beginning construction in 1957 on the western slope of Balaklava Bay. Channel length of about 500 meters pass through the mountain. Located near industrial shop and barns with a total length of 300 meters. 56The largest diameter of the tunnel - 22 m depth channel 8.5 meters. Maximum height of the inner cavity of the complex reached 10 meters, and the highest point of rock above it - the 126 meters. The total area of ​​all the underground facilities of the secret factory of over 10,000 square meters and the channel through which passed the submarine, the most widely Balaklava bay. The height of individual rooms - with a three-storey house ...

The entire underground complex with a locking system, drifts and Poterna, life support system and others is a unique historical monument of the engineering art in the CIS.


St George's Monastery.


Located on Heracleian Peninsula, between Marble and beam cape Fiolent, on the upper terrace of the coast, terminating perpendicularly from the west to the sea. The first known record of the Balaklava St. George Monastery M. Vronevskogo refers to 1578. According to tradition it was founded in 891 year.60

In the church of St. Georgia and in the monastery cemetery were buried: Prince AN Golitsyn, Earl V. Perovski - a relative of a revolutionary Sophia Perovskaya friend of Pushkin, Zhukovsky, and many of the Decembrists, the general IO Witt, Major-General NI Trigoni ; academic painting AE Karneev who participated in painting the church of St. Nicholas in the Fraternal Cemetery in Sebastopol, Vice-Admiral NM Sokovnin - the defense of Sevastopol 1854 - 1855 years.; abbot Metropolitan Chrysanth and many others. Monastery visited kings and travelers, artists and writers. In 1820 it visited, AS Pushkin, 1825 - AS Griboyedov. At the monastery there was a small house in which he lived Admiral MP Lazarev, hotels were built, the lodge for officers. Closed the monastery on Nov. 29, 1929. Time and war did not spare the monastery complex. Demolished church of St. George, many buildings destroyed, lost, park, gardens and vineyards. During the Great Patriotic War on the territory of the monastery was a military hospital. There appeared military burial, two gravestones have survived to this day. In 1991, in place of the lost the cross on the rock of St. George have set up a new metal cross. July 22, 1993 Board of Religious Affairs under the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine registered the statutes of the new monastery - St. George. Appointed governor, specify the territory of the monastery - about 8 hectares. Assigned to the monastery church of Saints Constantine and Helen, the Kings in with. Naval, and the temple of the Twelve Apostles at Balaklava was a farmstead of the monastery. Currently, St. George Monastery reborn.


Balaklava bay.63


Balaklava bay with a very narrow neck, surrounded on all sides by mountains, has long attracted the attention of the person as a convenient place to settle. It is often associated with the bay, which depicted Homer in the tenth song, "The Odyssey." The Greeks called it Simvolon, Yambol, the Genoese - Tsembalo, Tsymbalon, the Turks (with the 1475g.) - Balaklava.

Near Balaklava bay was rannetavrskoe settlement (7 th century BC)

64Later, the Balaklava Bay captured the Greeks who founded the Chersonese in the 4 century BC, then in a century - the Romans. In the former suburb of Balaclava Kady-Something in 1992 with the construction of the shopping center found a camp of Roman legionnaires. Further development of Balaklava bay carried the Genoese. At the top of the cliff, which rises above the eastern shore of the bay, the remains of the administrative part Cembalo - the upper town of St. Nicholas with a lock of the consul.

Currently, there are remnants of defensive and retaining walls and four towers of the fortress, captured by the Turks in 1457.


Cembalo Fortress is located on a mountaintop Kastron on the southeastern coast of Balaklava Bay 12 km south of the historic city center of Sevastopol.67


So far, well-preserved ruins of the majestic medieval fortress Cembalo, whose history is closely connected with the Genoese colonization of the Crimea in XIV-XV centuries. The exact time of occurrence of the Genoese in Balaklava harbor unknown. Obviously, it happened shortly before the devastating attacks on the Crimean Tatar hordes in 1345. After him, the Genoese spend considerable fortification work in their colonies and began to erect at the entrance to Balaklava bay fortress that became the Western District of Crimean - Consulate Cembalo, the boundaries of which were distributed along the coast from the mouth of the Black River in the vicinity of the fortress Kalamita (Inkerman) to Cape Sarich on Southern coast of Crimea (in the village. Foros).


68Now, the Genoese fortress Cembalo is a branch of the National Reserve Chersonese. " Together with other Genoa colonies Kafoy Crimea (Feodosia), and Soldayey (Sudak), this monument is of considerable interest to historians, archaeologists and tourists.

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