Ostrog castle complex
The first mention of jail refers to 1100. Almost three centuries (from the middle of the XIV century.) City was the seat of the princely family Ostrozki that gave Ukraine a prominent military leaders, philanthropists, architects ...
The first mention of jail refers to 1100. Almost three centuries (from the middle of the XIV century.) City was the seat of the princely family Ostrozki that gave Ukraine a prominent military leaders, philanthropists, architects. It appeared Ostroh Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy - the first high school in Ukraine, in the eastern Slavs and Orthodox peoples of Europe. In jail is the oldest castle in the Rivne region.
Undoubtedly, the most important architectural dominant jail is castle of Ostrog - a real pearl of ancient fortification art. It was here in the castle, where found and the remains of ancient settlements, started its development in jail.
His first wooden fortification, built back in the pre-Mongol times, were completely destroyed by the Tatar hordes in 1241. And in the first half of next century prince of the dynasty Ostrozki - Daniel (died about 1386) - restores on Courts (Castle) Mountain destroyed buildings. Later they once unfinished and perebudovuvalysya, and still kept a strict look serenovichchya.
The castle is situated on a relatively small (0.7 hectare) oval area on the hill. The very nature are cared defense sites: the southern and eastern sides of the castle went into a steep slope more than 20-meter height, and northern and western parts of the city separated by deep ditches on the basis of ever existing here ravine.
In the ensemble of the castle are now four main buildings: residential tower defense - "Tower of stone," Epiphany church, bell tower and the New Old Building (1905).
The oldest building of the fortress - "Tower of stone" (as its called in the act of 1603 on the partition of estates of Prince K.-V. Ostrog among his sons). The first stone of its foundation still others worship Daniel Ostrog. Placed it near the southeastern corner castle hill.
It's quite rare for Ukraine medieval tower-type Donjon. In the lower-tier facilities maintained various stores, here was a deep well. Verner of the tower - the result of later reconstructions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. After repairs in 1913 - 1915 рр. building was adapted from a museum library. Today in the 9 rooms of the museum - very interesting exposition of Ostrog regional museum.
In Murovani tower, where the museum Ostrog castle, the first thing that strikes a wall. Ever, impenetrable wall of masonry, with narrow windows and loopholes. It housed the huge stocks of gunpowder and supplies necessary for continuing protection of the fortress.
On the third floor of the stern fortress in the interior becomes quite fit for space official premises Ostrog castle. The walls become thinner, wider windows. The top floor housed living quarters - a relatively small cozy room, they exhibited a collection of icons XV - XVIII centuries. Corner rooms - an office of the Prince. Furniture presents chunky desk and book cupboard, plunge into the wall.
In several dozen meters from the tower murovanoyi - Epiphany Cathedral, typical cruciform pattern system, the popular pre-Mongol Rus. When it appeared the house itorykam is unknown. It is believed that in times of Basil Krasny.
The church was part of the fortifications of the city: it its northern wall, which goes to a deep artificial ditch, was thickened to 2.8 m and is connected with the fortress walls. In its lower part were loopholes in the top - wide enough ledge for guards.
After the transition of the local princes in Epiphany Catholic Church was anathematized. Church more than 200 years stood empty until the middle of the nineteenth century. turned into a ruin.
Only in 1886 began the reconstruction of the church by the architect V. Tokarev. Restoration, in which was preserved only the northern wall with loopholes, was completed in 1891
"Copy of" full-scale retained the basic proportions trohnefnoho, chetyrehstolpny p'yatyhlavoho temple so characteristic of ancient Rus. But the proportions and detalirovki fragments of the church, especially its chapters have been significantly affected. Were extended up the drums disappeared Gothic decorative elements of exterior walls, while there were parts in the fashion of the time "Byzantine" style. Noticeably longer apsydna became part zhidnoho near the entrance of "appeared a small extension. The interior" yeri was installed a massive "Byzantine" iconostasis of St. Petersburg artists. The walls are covered with paintings. In 80-ies of XX century. gilding domes.
In the southwestern corner of the castle yard is a monument of the third group - The new tower, which is sometimes also called a round. With age it a bit younger than Murowana and at church. In literature it usually date to the late 16th century. Although it is rather an add date of the upper tier of the Renaissance Tower.
It is known that in the time of Basil Krasny obvely city fortress walls and even then, in the mid 15th century., Laid the lower part of the new tower.
Right next to the castle, separated from him a deep ditch, vytyahnuvsya small rectangular square.
It is set in 1978 small stele, dedicated to 400th anniversary of Ostrog Academy is where former modest building under the roof of which were published edition of the famous Ivan Fedorov - "ABC", the Ostrog Bible (creative peak Fedorov).
The money Prince Ostrozky about 1576 in jail was founded Ostrog school - Greco-Slavic school of higher type. For the program of study at the Lyceum was the best Jesuit colleges. In Church Slavonic, Greek and Latin languages, as well as theology and philosophy, it taught the program of those boards "free science": mathematics, astronomy, grammar, rhetoric, logic.
The first rector of the school was writer G. Smotrytsky, teachers - famous contemporary Ukrainian and foreign teachers and scholars, such as Damian Nalyvayko monk Basil Surazkyy (graduate of Italian universities), H. Filalet, I. Liatos, Cyril Lukaris et al. Ostrog school had a great influence on the development of pedagogical thought and organization of school in Ukraine: a model for her act later fraternal school in Lviv, Lutsk, Vladimir-Volyn. School pupils were well-known scholar and writer Meletii Smotrytsky Petro Sahaidachny and other, later prominent religious and cultural figures.
Although the Ostrog Academy showed impressive gains which were thought capable of Ukrainian, a base that supported her was weak. Everything depended on the prince Ostrozky. And when in 1608 he died, his granddaughter Anna, fanatical Catholic, without wasting time Academy gave the Jesuits. With the establishment of the Jesuit College in jail Ostrog school collapsed around 1640 and ceased to exist.
In 1994, the work of this university has been restored as the awarding, and in 2000 awarded the title of National University of preserving historical name "Ostrog Academy".
The most ancient building, where now placed Ostrog Academy, were built in the second half. Eighteenth century. and belonged to the Capuchin Order. Before the group entered the monastery church and a small body cells, attached to the church. In 1832 the monastery was closed kaputsynskyy in jail, the monks moved to Starokostyantynova, kostelni things dismantled by other Catholic monasteries. Buildings and land monastery now owned by the government. For a long time the monastery was empty. Temporarily deployed military warehouses. After appearing in jail charitable educational Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood in 1865 it popechytelnytsya Countess AD Bludov vyklopotala permission to transfer him to an abandoned house of the former monastery. In 1865-1867 the initiative AD Bludov and with the assistance of the Government of the monastery was restored and rebuilt church architect Glazer of the Orthodox Church in psevdoruskomu style.
In 1923 the monastery housed in the structure of Polish teacher institute. Orthodox Church still remained. March 13, 1931 the church was closed. In 1937-38 it was rebuilt again in the church. Architectural decoration was destroyed, but to fully restore the original appearance of the temple failed.
After the reunification of Western Ukraine from the USSR in the church gym was arranged in the body - normal school. In the first weeks of war in 1941 the monastery housed a hospital, in September - October 1941 there functioned gymnasium, soon closed by order of German authorities, in late 1941-1942 - German Teacher courses; in 1943 - early 1944 - the German camp, where soldiers rested pilots.
After the war, in the structure of the monastery houses a normal school in 1956 - the average boarding school. In 1956 began construction of a typical sleeping in 1957-1958 built a new school building into 12 classes, which connect insulated transition to the hull, built in 1914. In 1986, after the closure of secondary school, in its structure houses the eight-year boarding school for children with damped forms of TB in 1992 - secondary school № 4, 1994 - Ostrog Senior College, established by Decree of President of Ukraine from April 12, 1994 , renamed on June 5, 1996 in Ostrog Academy.