Fortress in Belgorod-Dniester
Odesa City is one of the most ancient, because it has built our Cimmerians about the VI century AD. Then it was called Ofiusom. It was the policy. Subsequently, the settlement was renamed in Tyre. It is said that this city has become a haven for the Roman poet Ovid, exiled (one of the towers of the fortress is called "The Tower of Ovid's").
Belgorod-Dniester krepostOboronnye structures appeared to protect against constant attacks of the Scythians. However, fatal to the majestic city was ready to attack in 238. Centuries passed, and already on the ruins of once majestic Tyra Slavs erected Belgorod. Almost every name of this city means - white, because it was built of white stone-cherepashnika, white limestone.
The city was in possession of the same State, under the leadership of people of different nationalities. This Bulgarians, Russian princes, and treacherous Genoese merchants. Tyranny of the past tradesmen could not stand it, and eventually joined forces, they were driven out. The city became free, but in order to be able to assert their independence from the attackers, bolgorodtsy began construction of a fortress.
Belgorod-Dniester krepostV end of the XIV century the town became part of Moldavia and even became the capital of Lower Moldavia, again changing the name. This time it was called Chetaya-Albe, which in translation - "the white fortress." Erection outpost lasted until early 1400. Unfortunately this urban fortifications not only frightened by its grandeur, but also incredible beauty attracted enemies. From year to year bedgorodtsy were forced to defend his city.
Since 1420 Belgorod took a fancy to the Turkish Sultan Bajazet II. After three unsuccessful attempts by the sultan took care budzhatskuyu and the Crimean Horde (the Crimean Khan Mengli Giray). So in 1848, took a bloody, brutal battle. Belgorod defended valiantly. But forces were unequal, because the attackers army numbered about 350,000 soldiers. The Turks conquered the city, which named Akerman - "white stone." And that does not meet resistance sultan decided to exterminate the population of Belgorod. Statistics striking - from 20 thousand of its inhabitants survived about 200 families.
Belgorod-Dniester krepostNo Turks had no peace in a foreign city. The Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Sich regularly carried out raids on Ackerman.
Since 1812 White City belongs to the Russian Empire (agreement in accordance with the Bucharest this territory from the Dniester to the Danube surrendered to Russia.)
The complex history of the city left a mark on the form, size fortification, which was built over two hundred years. This building is located about 8 acres on the rocky shore of the Dniester estuary. The thickness of the walls about five feet, and the slowness - more than 2 kilometers.
The Click It consists of 26 building towers (from other sources - 34), and each - with unique architecture. Around the castle moat was dug chotyrnadtsatimetrovoy width and, if necessary, it was filled with water. Through to the main entrance - Killiyskih gate - was thrown a drawbridge. The interior walls divide the fortress on the 4 houses. The first was called the Civil Court. That it hid the local population during the siege. Also at the yard was a mosque and there is evidence that somewhere in the XIII century - the Christian Church. From this courtyard a path leads to the garrison that housed the barracks, stables and storehouses for ammunition.
The oldest building (which survives to this day) of Belgorod castle complex is the Citadel (also called the Genoese castle). It was built in XIII century. They lived mainly in the Citadel officials, superintendents of the castle. As he built four corners of the tower, each of them performed some separate function. Go from one emergency exit, which could escape from the fortress, and the other served as a prison, was also a tower, which holds valuable property, money, gold. The main tower was what was called the Executive.
Belgorod-Dniester krepostParadoks, but a mighty fortress suffered the greatest damage was not in combat, shooting, and in peacetime. What has not been able to storm the most powerful gun, slowly but surely destroy the human indifference.
In 1832 the fort was removed from the roster of defense structures. Therefore, any work carried out there, "collectors" piece by piece stretched it to business needs. However, in 1896, it nevertheless declared of historical and architectural landmark.
Opera House: the seven wonders of the thirteenth.
The real gem, a wonderful treasure of Odessa - its Opera House. Built by the Viennese architects F. Felner and H. Helmer (Ferdinand Fellner, Herman Helmer), Odessa theater - the thirteenth in their extensive collection of theaters in Europe. Overcoming the "unfortunate" mysticism of the number 13 - another wonderful story of the Odessa Opera House.
It was built just over 3 years of local material - Odessa limestone (limestone) at the site is completely burnt the city theater. Austrian architects during construction in Odessa did not come, so that the theater was erected best architects of Odessa - FV Gonsirovsky with the participation of A. and J. Bernardazzi Dmytrenko. They are very much added to the main project of famous Viennese, and rather successfully. "Odessa theater is the best in the world" - said F. Fellner, who arrived at the theater opening October 1, 1887. So popular phrase guides "Odessa Opera House, the second after the beauty of Vienna" is not quite correct ...
At the opening ceremony of the theater more than 120 years ago were hidden "secret documents". At the bottom of the mirror on the central white staircase was walled metal box with a symbolic gold-plated key (nothing fabulous "Golden Key" from Theatre Carlo dad?), As well as an official act of entering the building in operation, the day newspapers, posters and program performance. A new countdown has begun!
"The theater is full, the box shine" - these are the lines of the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. Another would be: because the theater is not stingy on the electric light - the first attempt in the history of Odessa! In general, the Odessa Opera - recognized "tonic" among the attractions of the city ever since the construction of the theater. Its architectural style - "Viennese Baroque." Odessans lovingly called his theater "Viennese cake" because of its round shape and abundance of decoration. The central entrance - as the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, on the sides - the sculptural groups, symbols, comedy and tragedy. Slightly higher - Orpheus and Terpsichore, "responsible" for the opera and ballet. At the very top of the quadruple tame Panthers in the chariot races Melpomene - the muse, patroness of art. Across the gable of the building dancing cupids - "putti," and in the niches above the loggia, seriously sublime genius of Russian literature and the arts. AS Pushkin, MI Glinka, NV Gogol, AS Griboyedov represent poetry, music, drama and comedy. The sculptures, scrolls, patterns - building on a lot of jewelry, but nothing more!
Inside this "cake" in style "Rococo" is also "taste" as the outside. Domes, columns, arches, sculptures, candle holders, dark-red velvet upholstery chairs, plenty of stucco, gilding and mirrors - the beauty, and more! Mural on the ceiling depict scenes of the artist Leffler of Shakespeare's tragedies, and gaze attracts an amazing crystal chandelier, weighing about 2.5 tons.
In the Odessa Opera has its ghosts and its secrets. The hall, which seats 1636 seats, unique acoustics: even a whisper can be heard very well in any part of it. And then there are "secret" body - when the instrument is not playing, organ pipes above the second tier of lodges closed blinds.
And, unfortunately, is no secret that 'thirteenth Theatre "a lot of time was in danger. During World War II the Nazis in 1944, planned to blow up the theater, but, fortunately, it did not happen. In 1925 a fire destroyed the fire scene and unique curtain, damaged the auditorium. And then the fault of the other elements - water damaged basement of the theater and the building is rapidly destroyed. Theatre sought to protect from ground water and landslides in 1955 - 1956 GG: then pumped under building 6 million liters of liquid glass. In the next 2 years the building has also been completely renovated inside and out. Home Opera beat those years - "to the interior decoration of the hall restorers have spent 9 kg of pure gold leaf!" Meanwhile, the building continued to deteriorate. Finally, from 1996 to 2007 restored theater is thorough, this time - for centuries. Foundation piles strengthened in 1800, which run into the underground hard rock. Note some of the piles - "name": means the salvation of the theater not only extracts the state, but also sacrificed individuals. Achieve large-scale reconstruction - Modern air conditioning systems, fire alarm and power supply, internal mobile communications, security, video surveillance systems. Of course, was a complete restoration of the facade and the interior (no gold has not done again!), Installed a new curtain. Finally, September 22, 2007 reopened the Odessa Opera House - not less solemn than the first time 120 years ago.
Theatre, where he conducted once the great Russian composer PI Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff and performed, Pablo Sarasate, Fyodor Chaliapin, Anna Pavlova, Isadora Duncan, and today boasts a magnificent artists and musicians. As well as performances of "Giselle", "Sleeping Beauty", "Nutcracker," "La Traviata", "Don Quixote", "Horse-Horse," "Carmen Suite".
Odessa Opera House, which bears the title "Academic" from 1926 to 2007 decree Prezidzhenta Ukraine the status of "National." Unofficially Odessa is still referred to his own theater, "cake" and called their guests to a wonderful "dessert" - an opera or ballet.
Odessa Opera and Ballet Theatre is located at: Tchaikovsky street, 1.