Novgorod Kremlin - "Detinets"
The oldest building of Novgorod were apparently made of wood. This is evidenced by the legendary story of Prince Rurik, the ancient chronicler recorded: "And there came [Rurik] to Ilmeryu [Lake Ilmen], log city of Volkhov and prozvasha th [his] Novgorod and Sede arborvitae. Where was this ancient Novgorod fortress - hard to say, most likely it was built on the hill, which in the early twelfth century, appears in the Novgorod chronicles as "The Settlement." This word in the Old Russian language called ancient, abandoned building.
Novgorod Kremlin, a view from the river Volkhov.
By 1044 the Novgorod chronicle the construction of Prince Yaroslav the stone citadel or how often he was called in ancient Novgorod, "Stone City". No trace of this building not extant, for the following years Novgorod Detinets reconstructed several times. However, there can be no doubt that the first stone Novgorod fortress was in the same place, where the hitherto preserved Detinets, although its dimensions were much smaller.
Archaeological research in recent years in the southern part of the citadel (near the Palace of the tower) have found the remains of a powerful shaft, which is located on a modern stone wall. The shaft was poured from the mainland of clay excavated from the ditch adjacent to the shaft. At the bottom of the shaft preserved decking of logs, arranged both along and perpendicular to the shaft, and logs it was not structurally related. Apparently, we have the remnants of a shaft, herpes Detinets before a stone wall built in 1044. Interestingly, in the northern part of the citadel, near the Tower of Vladimir, the same was found digging the shaft, which is based on structural wooden frames of logs (the so-called Gorodnya) inside them was tightly packed with continental clay. Some log cabins are preserved to a height of ten crowns. Until a more complete study of these interesting remains of ancient fortifications is difficult to explain the difference in the technique of the device shaft in the southern and northern part of the citadel.
At the beginning of the twelfth century Detinets was expanded and rebuilt. Novgorod annals connects this with the restructuring of urban development activities of Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich. That same summer, reports the Chronicle under the year 1116, "Mstislav laid Novgorod boly pervago." Some researchers have suggested Novgorod that wall in 1116 covered an additional area of modern southern citadel, which had previously housed the ancient citadel walls outside.
It is no coincidence and not based on any traditional formulas Chronicle reported in 1044 and in 1116 respectively for the construction of this citadel prince. If we have no assurance that Detinets - early twelfth century princely residence was permanent, it is still no doubt that the political citadel at this time it was owned by Prince. In ancient Novgorod, as well as in other ancient cities, was a stronghold of Detinets and symbol of princely power.
Since the end of the twelfth century to the gate tower are attached inside the gate citadel of stone temples. For example, in 1195, at the gate, coming out to the bridge across the Volkhov, the Archbishop of Novgorod Martyrios built a stone church vestments and provisions of the belt of the Virgin, painted murals commissioned by the same Martiri next year. From the attached church gates were named "Prechistenskie." In 1233 over the gate that led into Nerevsky end, was laid a stone gate church of Fedor. Although its construction in the chronicle is not named, yet the very position it on the Episcopal (ie archbishop) the court suggests in her construction, is also associated with the archbishop.
In 1296, Archbishop Clement put a stone gate Church of the Resurrection, and the following year the St. George monastery, Archimandrite, who was second in importance after the Archbishop of Novgorod representative of ecclesiastical authority, laid the stone Church of the Transfiguration on the southern gate, which led to Lyudin of the city.
It is significant that in the buildings of the temples gate citadel of Novgorod princes have taken the slightest part, and the main role in this building belongs to the archbishop of Novgorod. It should be recalled that in the middle of the twelfth century, in connection with the formation of a new political system Novgorod Veche Republic, the role of the prince's power significantly dropped, replaced by an elected mayor is not only, but the archbishop, who is usually chosen from the largest boyar families and played a key role in the political veche life of the republic. Since the beginning of the twelfth century, the princes are moving on the site, which until the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow, all related to the further history of princely power. Detinets from this time became a stronghold of the new system veche Novgroda.
Novgorod Kremlin. The gates of the city center.
Looked like Novgorod Detinets twelfth century and its tower with a gate adjacent to them temples, we do not know, because of the Wall in 1116 as a result of later surgery, as well as from the built-on to its gate tower temples, up to now not kept any one part.
New capital restructuring Detinets Novgorod suffered in the first half of the fourteenth century. B 1302, according to the Novgorod Chronicle, "zalozhisha city Novugorodu stone." The chroniclers do not tell, on whose initiative was launched this new reconstruction of fortifications Novgorod, apparently, she was made the means of Novgorod's coffers. Judging by the fact that on the future course of construction of Novgorod chroniclers are silent, started work in 1302, probably soon, for some reason left off.
Major work on the construction of new walls citadel began again only at the beginning of ZO-ies of the fourteenth century. In 1331, "Bishop Basil laid the stone from the holy city Volodimer to Holy Mother [ie, from the tower to the portal Vladimir Prechistenskaya portal towers], and from the Virgin to Boris and Gleb" (that is, from the tower to the temple Prechistenskaya Boris and Gleb, who was standing in southern citadel). Construction was zavershenz to 1334. Thus, three years almost the entire wall along the Volkhov citadel was created anew, but in this work were again suspended. Restructuring citadel was continued until the early fifteenth century. In 1400 "laid the lord John Detinets stone city of St. Boris and Gle6a?, That is, from that site, which was brought to a wall, built in 1331 - 1334, respectively.
Wall citadel built in the fourteenth century, despite the restructuring of capital in the fifteenth century, in some minor areas preserved to this day. It is composed of limestone slabs and boulders of large size.
Novgorod Kremlin. Zlatoustovskaya Intercession and the tower.
In the XIV - XV centuries continued as before, the construction of the temple gate at the walls of citadel. In 1311, Archbishop David put a stone church of Prince Vladimir of the gate that led into Nerevsky of the city. In 1398, Archbishop John built a new stone Church of the Resurrection at the gate, apparently on the site of an ancient gate of the church of the same name, built in 1296. In 1461, Archbishop John crashed in place of the ancient gate of the church Vladimir put a new one, and in 1464 he also re-rebuild the destroyed church of Prechistenskie Gates, who enjoyed the Volkhov bridge.
As in the XII - XIII centuries, rebuilding of walls and towers and the citadel gate structure in the main temple are conducted on the initiative of the archbishop, who at that time becomes the de facto head of the Novgorod Veche elected republic. His residence - Episcopal yard, which occupies a large part of citadel, built up by numerous church, residential and farm buildings. Duty to maintain combat readiness citadel stemmed not only from the state of the Novgorod prince, but from concern for the protection of his Episcopal court. That can be explained not only many of the above facts are part of the Archbishop of surgeries and rehabilitation citadel, but also numerous historical mention of "Episcopal treasury", to which resorted to Novgorod in the need for urgent works carried out in Detinets. For example, in 1364, "the city of Novgorod ponovmsha stone, silver vzemshe in St. Sophia, the Mosaic Vladychnoye congestion."
In the construction of the citadel gate church in the fourteenth century, along with the Archbishop take a part and representatives of major boyar families. For example, in 1305 Simon Boyar Klimovich builds a stone church of the Protection of the gate which led from the citadel to Pruskuyu street that housed the largest yards Novgorod boyar families, and in 1379 burgomaster Yakunovich Gregory puts in the same place a new stone church of the Intercession.
At the end of the fifteenth century, after the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow, the political citadel is the owner of the Grand Duke of Moscow. From now on, all the buildings and repairs are done on the orders from Moscow, though not always at the Moscow money. The princes of Moscow only to a certain extent, and then more nominally than in fact, divide its power over the citadel with a ruler of Novgorod.
In 1484, "the command of Grand Prince Ivan Vasilyevich nachasha zdati hail stone Detinets on the old basis." Construction was completed in 1490. Reporting on the end of it, some of Novgorod chroniclers added that "hail stone" was created "in two parts, the Grand Duke of dengue and the third ruler of his free money." Although the construction of the old citadel of Novgorod tradition involved the lord, the main initiative no longer belongs to him, and Grand Prince of Moscow.
Detinets, re-built in 1484 - 1490's, mostly preserved to this day, though, of course, has repeatedly been subjected to various rearrangements. Detinets Novgorod in its present form is a monument of military engineering in Moscow architecture of the late fifteenth century. Subsequent adjustment were relatively minor and did not significantly change the basic architectural appearance of the monument. As part of it, perhaps, save some of the older buildings XII - XIV centuries, which in the future, a more thorough architectural and archaeological study, perhaps, be found. So, laying of flagstone and Bulyga, preserved for so-called "house in the belfry," apparently, is rest citadel walls 1331 - 1334 period. Archaeological excavations in recent years managed to detect the other side of the wall of the fourteenth century.
Despite the explicit statement of the chronicler, that the construction of a citadel 1484 - 1490 years was conducted "on the old basis," Detinets, erected by order of Grand Prince of Moscow, was essentially a brand new building, construction of which were related only to ancient fortress of the plan, since apparently wanted to keep the direction of old ditches and embankments, as well as partial use of strong masonry of the ancient walls.
However, this did not stop them to create a fortress, meet all the requirements of the new fortification techniques caused radical change in Russian military-engineering architecture in the late fifteenth century with the development of "fire fighting".
During the seventeenth century, the Moscow government vigilantly watched over the maintenance of defensive citadel of Novgorod. In 1701, after the battle of Narva, Peter I ordered to strengthen the fortifications of Novgorod and Pskov. The main focus was on reconstruction of the so-called Small earthen city, located on the west side citadel. At the same time had been repaired the walls and towers citadel. Soon, due to changes in Russia's western borders, the military importance of Novgorod dropped. In 1720, "ordered to leave Novgorod fortress and garrison there not to be." However, in 1729 Novgorod was again at some time in the state of the fortresses on the north-western border.
In the 20 years of the nineteenth century were carried out minor repair work, in particular on the place of in the late eighteenth century and the Resurrection Prechistenskaya towers were built extensive travel arki.Remontnye of fortifications citadel in 1830 - 1840 had the task of not only technical strengthening them as a general improvement of the city.
In 1862, the fence collapsed wall in the 170 meters in length, adjacent to the Palace Tower. In connection with the planned September 7, 1862 inauguration of the monument "Millennium of Russia" imperial government was forced to urgently restore the site fell upon the wall and at the same time to work on improvement of citadel. Novgorod Detinets in terms of an irregular oval, elongated along the axis of north - south, several concave from the Volkhov. Total length of walls and towers citadel 1385 feet. In the fifteenth century Detinets had thirteen towers, of which until now remained only nine. Six 6ashen served to strengthen the gate, others reinforce the defense of the most critical sections of the walls.
The walls and towers citadel built of stone slabs, bricks and Bulyga. The use of brick as a facing material differs from Novgorod Detinets simultaneously with the built castles in the north-west Russia - in Ladoga, Koporye, Izborsk, which were built of hewn boards with backing Bulyga inside the walls.
Detinets Novgorod, as a considerable military engineering of his time, was and still is a remarkable monument of ancient architecture, representing the interest of architectural and artistic point of view. Solution of practical problems of defense is not forcing architects to neglect the search of beautiful proportions and forms of construction as a whole and its parts.