Tsar Bell in Moscow
Tsar Bell in Moscow - one of the sights of the Kremlin. Never made it amazes the tourists with its gigantic size. Located at the Ivanovo area, is a monument to the foundry art of the 18th century. He was cast by craftsmen Motorin - Ivan and his son Michael. Known masters foundry cast a dozen guns, a bell rang their work not only in Moscow but in St. Petersburg, Kiev and other Russian cities.
From the history of the Tsar Bell in Moscow
First Tsar Bell in Moscow weighing about 40 tons was cast back in 1600. During the fire in the middle of the 17th century, he fell from the tower and crashed. It was decided to smelt new, more powerful. And the new "giant", set at the Belfry next to the bell tower of Ivan the Great, was weighing 130 tons. In 1654, the year to celebrate Christmas, and beat all the bells, it crashed. Re-cast the Tsar Bell weighed over 160 tons. He was a master cast Grigoriev. Strong fire June 19, 1701 again did not spare "the King": he fell and broke, too. In 1730, by decree of Empress Anna Ivanovna decided to draft a new bell. 4 years of preparatory work going. At the Ivanovo area, near the bell tower was built in the shape of the pit depth of 10 meters. Its walls are reinforced with brick and oak. The bottom of the posted oak piles, which have put iron bars. She was fitted shape and a casing for the casting of a giant. For fusion were built four furnaces. We used the old metal bells with the addition of copper. The work was entrusted to the casting of Ivan Motorin. By November 1734 all preparatory work completed. November 26, after service in the Assumption Cathedral was flooded furnace. But the cast does not start, as the two furnaces accident occurred and copper flowed under the stove. As a result, the fire started. Began the restoration work. And soon, in August 1735, Ivan Motorin died. The work continued by his son Michael. November 25, 1735 for 1 hour, 12 minutes, the bell was cast. After it cooled, began relief work, which continued up to the Kremlin's fire in May 1737. People would come running to put out Ignition wooden planks and logs over the pit in which there was a bell, because of the heat it could melt. He began to pour water. From exposure to extreme temperatures molten metal began to crack, and he broke off a piece weighing 11.5 tons. Thus, almost 100 years (from 1735 to 1836) he lay in the casting pit. After the Second World War with the French, when restored the Kremlin, the Tsar-bell set on a pedestal near the bell tower of Ivan the Great as a sample of Russian foundry art.
Description of the Tsar Bell
Tsar Bell in Moscow - the big metal bell in the world. His height - 6.24 meters. Diameter - 6.6 m, weight - about 200 tons. It can be seen the inscription that he was cast in 1733 by Ivan Motorin and his son Michael his. In fact, he was cast in 1735 by Mikhail Motorin. Inaccuracy of the inscriptions suggests that the "Giant" was cast in the form originally made. Raised under the guidance of his Monferanna August, the famous architect of St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg, with experience in heavy construction. The people were amazed at the power and beauty of the giant raised. Once it cleared, gilt top, you can see the silver-gray surface. Newspapers wrote: "... the image on the bell quite skillful, elegant designs."
The pedestal on which was set "Giant", was designed by A. Montferrand. Copper Power, with a gilded cross on top - well done on his project. The image of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in all growth in ceremonial dress with orb and scepter in his hand reminds us of that with him, in the 17th century, was poured Tsar Bell - his predecessor. Empress Anna Ivanovna depicted in coronation dress. It was she issued a decree on the casting of a new bell. Under the image of Anna Ivanovna poured down in a circular medallion the inscription: "This bell Lil Russian master Ivan Fedorov Motor son with his son Mikhail Motorin '. You can see Christ and the Virgin, St. John the Baptist and the Holy Anna, as well as the Apostle Peter. Between the figures of Anna Ivanovna, Alexei Mikhailovich and depicts two beautiful curly cartouche, within which there are inscriptions about the history of the bell. Unfortunately, a fire in 1737 prevented completely implement our plans. Some work on the coinage remained unfulfilled. Recently, the archives has helped to restore the forgotten name of the sculptor's decor. It was Fedor Medvedev.
Tsar Bell in Moscow has no analogues in the world. It remains the largest and most admired for its giant size and weight of visitors to the Moscow Kremlin.