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St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow

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Written by Administrator

Posted on 28 July 2011

Покровский собор (Храм Василия Блаженного.

 

St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow's Red Square - the main temple of the Russian capital. Therefore, for many people in the world it is a symbol of Russia, as well as the Eiffel Tower for France, or the Statue of Liberty for America. At present the temple is a branch of the State Historical Museum. Since 1990, he included in the List of World Heritage in Russia.

 


From the history of St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow's Red Square

October 1, 1552, the feast of the Protection of the Mother of God of Kazan began the assault, which was won by Russian soldiers. In honor of this victory by decree of Ivan the Terrible was built the temple of the Protection of the Mother of God, now known as St. Basil's Cathedral.

Earlier in place of the temple was a church in the name of the Trinity. According to legend, in a crowd of pedestrians can often be seen fool Basil, who left home at an early age and was wandering around the capital. He was known to have possessed the gift of healing and clairvoyance, and collecting money for a new Protection Church. Before his death he gave the money collected to Ivan the Terrible. He was buried in Holy Trinity Church Holy Fool. When Pokrovsky temple built his tomb was close to the wall of the temple. Later, after 30 years at the direction of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich had a chapel built new, consecrated in honor of St. Basil. Since then, the church was called by the same name. In the old Cathedral of the Intercession was red-white and gold dome. Domes were 25: 9 major and 16 small ones, located around the central pavilion, chapels and bell towers. The central cupola had the same complex form as the side of the dome. Wall painting of the temple was more complex.

Inside the temple was located very few people. Therefore, during the holiday services were held in Red Square. St. Basil's Cathedral was the altar. The place of execution out priests, and served as a dome sky. The temple has a height of 65 meters. Prior to the construction of the Ivanovo bell in the Kremlin was the highest in Moscow. After a fire in 1737 the church was restored, and in the second half of the 18th century, 16 small chapters around the towers were removed, and the bell tower connected to the church, which has become a multi-colored.

Throughout its history, several times the church was on the verge of collapse. According to legend, Napoleon kept in the temple of his horses and wanted to move the building in Paris. But while this was impossible. Then he decided to blow up the temple. Suddenly the rain extinguished the burning polivshy wicks and saved the building. After the Revolution the church was closed, the bells melted, and its rector Fr John Vostorgov shot. Lazarus Koganovich to open the car traffic and demonstrations offered to demolish the building. Only the courage and tenacity of the architect, PD Baranovsky saved the church. Stalin's famous phrase, "Lazarus, put in place," and the decision to demolish was canceled.

 
How many domes on Saint Basil's Cathedral

The temple was constructed in 1552-1554 years. at a time when there was a war with the Golden Horde for the conquest of the kingdoms of Kazan and Astrakhan. After each victory was built a wooden church in honor of the saint's feast day is celebrated on this day. Also, some temples were built in honor of the momentous events. By the end of the war in one place was 8 churches. Moscow Prelate Metropolitan Macarius advised the king to build a temple in stone with a common base. In 1555-1561 years. architects Barma and Yakovlev were built on a foundation of eight churches, four of them axial and four smaller ones in between. They are all different in architectural decoration and have a bulbous dome, decorated cornices, kokoshniks, windows and niches. In the center stands ninth church with a small dome in honor of the Protection of the Mother of God. In the 17th century bell tower was built with a marquee dome. In view of this dome, the church - 10 caps.

    * North church was consecrated in the name of Cyprian and Ustinov, and later - in the name of St. Adrian and Natalia.
    * Eastern church was consecrated in the name of Troitsy.Yuzhnaya church - in the name of Nikola Velikoretsky.
    * The Western church was consecrated in the name of the Entry into Jerusalem to commemorate the return of the troops of Ivan the Terrible in Moscow.
    * North-East church was consecrated in the name of the Three Patriarchs of Alexandria.
    * South-Eastern Church - in the name of Alexander Svirsky.
    * South-western church - in the name of Barlaam Khutyn.
    * Northwest - in the name of Gregory the Armenian.

Eight chapters, built around a central ninth, in terms of form a figure consisting of two squares at an angle of 45 degrees and is an eight-pointed star. The number 8 symbolizes the day of Christ's resurrection, and the eight-pointed star - the symbol of the Blessed Virgin. Square means firmness and constancy of faith. Its four sides indicate the four cardinal directions and four of the cross, four of the apostle-evangelist. The central temple united church and the other symbolizes the protection of the whole of Russia.

 
Museum in the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed in Moscow's Red Square

Now the temple is open as a museum. His visitors can climb the spiral staircase and enjoy the iconostasis, the icons are located in 16-19 centuries and see the patterns inside the gallery. The walls are decorated with oil paintings and frescoes of 16-19 centuries. The museum houses a portrait and landscape painting, as well as church utensils 16-19 centuries. There are views that need to keep the St. Basil Cathedral on Red Square in Moscow, not just as a monument of extraordinary beauty, but also as an Orthodox saint. Starting the service, you may be able to give him a second life.

Собор Василия Блаженного

Russia - Moscow

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