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Museum-Reserve "Tsarina"

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Written by Administrator

Posted on 12 August 2011

State Historical, Architectural, Artistic and
Landscape Museum-Reserve "Tsarina"
Dolsky st., 1, metro station "Tsarina", "walnut"
Since ancient times this territory was inhabited by Slavic tribes vyatichey.
Mounds vyatichey XI-XII centuries, archaeologists have found on the slopes of the river
Yazvenki on the northern edge of the park.
Throughout its history the area several times changed its name:
Heath Chernogryaznaya - from 1589;
Black Dirt - up to 1683-1684 period;
Bogorodskoye - after 1684;
Black Dirt again - c 1712;
Tsarina - since 1775;
Lenine - September 28 1918 to August 1991.
When Ivan the Terrible, these lands were assigned to a neighboring royal
Kolomenskoye estate, so the first mention Heath
Chernogryazskaya in 1589 as part of the palace estate Kolomenskoye.
In the 1590s the land from the river mouth to the Kolomna Pakhra belonged
Godunov family.
At that time the land belonged to his sister the queen of Boris Godunov
Irina Feodorovna.
From 1633 until mid-1680 the village belonged to father-king Michael
Romanov Boyar Streshneva Lukyanov, who built
Boyarsky Dvor here, while the village was called black mud.
Later in the 1680s it was owned by the princess Sophia's favorite Prince Vasili
Golitsyn, who renamed the village in Bogorodskoye the temple in the name of
Icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary, "Life-giving Spring."
When Golitsyn had fallen into disfavor, the estate was taken to the treasury and returned
his original name.
In 1711 Peter I granted the Black Dirt their colleague,
Moldavian Prince Dimitrie Cantemir Ruler, has passed into Russian
service after the Russian-Turkish war.
Dmitry Cantemir himself rarely visited his property, preferring
live in the Oryol region, and in the Black Dirt lived his daughter Mary,
former favorite of Peter I, from the 1720s and until his death,
and after removal from the court.
It spent his childhood famous satirist Antiochus Cantemir.
When the estate of Cantemir was built a stone church in the style of
Petrine Baroque, preserved to this day.
In 1775, black mud was bought by Catherine II
over 25 thousand rubles.
Catherine decided to make this his residence outside Moscow.
Barton was given a new name - the Tsarina.
When Catherine Tsarina was built almost 20 years from 1775 to 1796.
The first decade of the architect Vasily Bazhenov was.
For Bazhenov Tsaritsynskaya epic turned into a tragedy.
From the outset it was decided to build a mansion in the Gothic style,
to this corner of Catherine resembled his native Germany.
Bazhenov had to build almost all the buildings estate.
He designed housing were built Bread, Petit Palais,
The Opera House, Cavalry Building, bridges and Vine Gate,
have survived.
Also, the architect built a palace instead of a large two
identical to the palace of Catherine II and heir to the throne of Paul I.
The architecture used lancet Gothic windows, jewelry
with the state symbols, patterned brickwork in
an old Russian technique.
But in 1785, visited the Empress Tsarina and ordered all
break down and build anew the estate, and Bazhenov fell into disfavor and was
suspended from work, as suggested, because of its ties with
Moscow Masons.
Since 1787 to 1793 he worked in the Tsarina's Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov.
He dismantled the buildings and part of the Bazhenov began to pretend their
projects.
But the building was a difficult funding prevented the second Russian-Turkish
war.
Cossacks managed to complete the Grand Palace, not only was
interior.
At this time the Tsarina was defeated by one of the best landscape in Moscow
parks.
After the death of Catherine's Palace, the construction stopped.
In the XIX century Tsarina became a popular holiday destination of Muscovites.
At that time, built a small park pavilions.
Part of the park pavilions and Greenhouse bridge across the ravine at
A meat house was built by architect Ivan Alexander I
Egotov, a disciple of M. Kazakov.
In the 1830's. Tsaritsyno Palace wanted to finish for Nicholas I,
but he did not like the emperor, the palace later tried to
customized to the barracks, a factory, but there is so no one lived.
Gradually, the palace complex was destroyed, the buildings were
abandoned and turned into a romantic ruin.
With seal of the Moscow-Kursk railway became Tsarina
popular summer resort.
At the end of XIX century there was a theater, a public garden, benches,
restaurants, zemstvo School, a summer residence.
At 40 yards population 192 people.
In 1920 the village became a summer resort village of Tsarina, and in 1939
given the status of urban-type settlement with the name of Lenin.
In 1960 the village became part of Moscow.
In 1993 he received the status of the Tsaritsyno Museum.
Only in 2005, began a complete restoration of the complex Tsaritsyn
which was completed by 2009.
Now houses the State Historical and Architectural
art and landscape reserve "Tsarina".
This is a solid museum-exhibition, historical and cultural complex.
It consists of an architectural ensemble of the Bazhenov and Kazakov,
Reborn English landscape park XVIII-XIX centuries, one of the
the oldest in Moscow and a cascade of Tsaritsynsky Borisov ponds.
The reserve is 650 hectares.
The museum collection includes more than 32 thousand exhibits of Russian and
art world.

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