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Castle in selі Svіrzh

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Written by Administrator

Posted on 22 November 2011

Last Updated 22 November 2011

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Also known as:

- Svіrzky castle (in Ukrainian), Svіrzhsky castle (in Ukrainian)

- Castle in selі Svіrzh (Ukrainian), Zamek w Świrzu (pol.)

The first phase of construction: second half of the 15th century (?)

The last stage of construction: the end of the 1970s-1980s

The settlement was founded in the hills on the left bank of the river Svirzh, left tributary of the Dniester. As a place to build a building was selected an isolated hill, which had a good natural protection. This hill was anciently known as "Belz". Access to the future, not only hindered the strengthening of the steep slopes of hills, and all kinds of lakes, ponds and shallow marshes that surrounded the hill with several parties. The most reliable zamchische was covered by natural barriers from the north, east and west. South side (floor) was the most accessible to attack by the enemy. Because this part was later built the most powerful part of the castle fortifications, and to compensate for the weakness of the natural protection on that side had been dug a deep ditch. By the early period of history Svirzh, namely the 15th century, decided to attribute the appearance in the vicinity of the castle hill of fish pond, created by the overlap of the river dikes. Reservoirs rounded hill circle and, to a large extent, increased the defensive fortifications. Levees and locks properly operated until 1880, then declined.

1416. Most researchers attribute the first mention of Svirzh to 1427, but the magazine «Spotkania Świrzan», touching on their pages Svirzh history, leads still earlier date - 1416, to which the reference settlement, then bore the name Szwyrzcz. Later this name repeatedly transformed.

1427. If not the first, then exactly one of the earliest mentions of Svirzh, who then visited the Polish King Vladislav II Jagiello (1351 - 1434). Even then Svirzh was a significant settlement.

1443. Svirzh referred to as the property of Nicholas Romanovsky. Members of the genus Romanov - the first known private owners Svirzh. About them virtually nothing is known, however, some researchers believe that even when they might arise in Svirzh first fortifications on Castle Hill. It has been suggested that the ruins of a lonely tower, located in the southeastern part of zamchischa, the ditch could be related back to the period when the Romanov rulers were Svirzh. However, this bold version still has the status of hypotheses, most researchers still tend to attribute the construction of the castle to a later period, when the settlement came under the authority Svirzhsky kind.

September 22, 1449. Svirzh mentioned in written sources, in connection with a demarcation of the territory are the towns and villages, which indicates a significant area of ​​growing populations.

1456. Mention Svirzh whose owner at the time was Martin Romanovsky.

End of 15 - first half of the 17th century. The settlement goes into the possession of Svirzhsky kind. During this period Svirzh had city status. Under the authority of the city was Svirzhsky about 150-160 years, until the mid-17th century.

It is considered that Svirzh got its name from the name of Svirzhsky kind, but there was a settlement before the moment has passed under the authority of the said kind, and even then it was called, consonant with the word "Svirzh." It has been suggested that the name of the settlement gave the same name river, in whose name, incidentally, some researchers see the Slavic root "Svir" or "Svir" meaning sound, something in the spirit of the whistle, squeak or rustle. Perhaps in ancient times the river was not Svirzh so quiet, as it is today, may sound, which gave her water and gave the name of the river, then gave the name of the settlement, and only then, on this basis, the genus name Svirzhsky born. Since Svirzhsky took them just a name, we can conclude that Svirzh was their main residence.

Second half of the 15th century. As noted above, is not known exactly when Svirzh built the first castle. We only know that the first castle was designed almost exclusively for defense, and a comfortable residence features have been relegated to second or even a third plan. Most researchers believe that the construction unfolded at Svirzhsky, but, rather, in the period when the settlement was ruled by brothers Andrew (Andrzej) and Martin. On the basis of archaeological surveys of the castle, it was concluded that the brothers Svirzhsky during this period was built in Svirzh first stone fortifications. Early castle was square in shape with sides approximately 52h52 meters. At the ends of the building were two towers, of which only one (Western) survives to this day. The presence of the second tower told the remains symmetrical in terms of the structure with thick walls at the east tower and the remnants of the southern facade. Probably the east tower was dismantled during the subsequent large-scale restructuring of the castle in the 17th century. From other buildings of the old castle have survived only fragments of the walls of the lower tiers. Three sides of the castle protected by natural barriers from the fourth most accessible, was dug a deep ditch. On this early stage of construction of the castle there is no information in historical sources, so look first to reconstruct the strongholds only on the basis of materials of excavations and research-preserved complex of buildings. In addition to the castle and brothers founded in Svirzh Roman Catholic diocese in 1481.

1484. The very first known written mention of the castle. Previously, of course, Svirzh met several times in written sources, but there was mentioned a settlement as a whole, rather than its individual architectural objects.

1492. At this year have another early mention of the castle.

Svirzh Castle - the date 1530 on the north portal
 

1530. Survived the first evidence of one of the stages of reconstruction of the castle - the Tower at the gate of the courtyard, above the opening goal, on a stone slab carved the date "1530." These dates are often recorded the completion of some important stages in the formation of architectural complexes. Probably in 1530 ended an important phase of the restructuring and modernization of the castle fortifications. This information is especially valuable because of the fate of the castle in the 16th century, virtually nothing is known.



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