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Lviv

Castle in selі Svіrzh

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Written by Administrator

Posted on 22.11.11

Last Updated 22.11.11

Also known as:

- Svіrzky castle (in Ukrainian), Svіrzhsky castle (in Ukrainian)

- Castle in selі Svіrzh (Ukrainian), Zamek w Świrzu (pol.)

The first phase of construction: second half of the 15th century (?)

The last stage of construction: the end of the 1970s-1980s

The settlement was founded in the hills on the left bank of the river Svirzh, left tributary of the Dniester. As a place to build a building was selected an isolated hill, which had a good natural protection. This hill was anciently known as "Belz". Access to the future, not only hindered the strengthening of the steep slopes of hills, and all kinds of lakes, ponds and shallow marshes that surrounded the hill with several parties. The most reliable zamchische was covered by natural barriers from the north, east and west. South side (floor) was the most accessible to attack by the enemy. Because this part was later built the most powerful part of the castle fortifications, and to compensate for the weakness of the natural protection on that side had been dug a deep ditch. By the early period of history Svirzh, namely the 15th century, decided to attribute the appearance in the vicinity of the castle hill of fish pond, created by the overlap of the river dikes. Reservoirs rounded hill circle and, to a large extent, increased the defensive fortifications. Levees and locks properly operated until 1880, then declined.

1416. Most researchers attribute the first mention of Svirzh to 1427, but the magazine «Spotkania Świrzan», touching on their pages Svirzh history, leads still earlier date - 1416, to which the reference settlement, then bore the name Szwyrzcz. Later this name repeatedly transformed.

1427. If not the first, then exactly one of the earliest mentions of Svirzh, who then visited the Polish King Vladislav II Jagiello (1351 - 1434). Even then Svirzh was a significant settlement.

1443. Svirzh referred to as the property of Nicholas Romanovsky. Members of the genus Romanov - the first known private owners Svirzh. About them virtually nothing is known, however, some researchers believe that even when they might arise in Svirzh first fortifications on Castle Hill. It has been suggested that the ruins of a lonely tower, located in the southeastern part of zamchischa, the ditch could be related back to the period when the Romanov rulers were Svirzh. However, this bold version still has the status of hypotheses, most researchers still tend to attribute the construction of the castle to a later period, when the settlement came under the authority Svirzhsky kind.

September 22, 1449. Svirzh mentioned in written sources, in connection with a demarcation of the territory are the towns and villages, which indicates a significant area of ​​growing populations.

1456. Mention Svirzh whose owner at the time was Martin Romanovsky.

End of 15 - first half of the 17th century. The settlement goes into the possession of Svirzhsky kind. During this period Svirzh had city status. Under the authority of the city was Svirzhsky about 150-160 years, until the mid-17th century.

It is considered that Svirzh got its name from the name of Svirzhsky kind, but there was a settlement before the moment has passed under the authority of the said kind, and even then it was called, consonant with the word "Svirzh." It has been suggested that the name of the settlement gave the same name river, in whose name, incidentally, some researchers see the Slavic root "Svir" or "Svir" meaning sound, something in the spirit of the whistle, squeak or rustle. Perhaps in ancient times the river was not Svirzh so quiet, as it is today, may sound, which gave her water and gave the name of the river, then gave the name of the settlement, and only then, on this basis, the genus name Svirzhsky born. Since Svirzhsky took them just a name, we can conclude that Svirzh was their main residence.

Second half of the 15th century. As noted above, is not known exactly when Svirzh built the first castle. We only know that the first castle was designed almost exclusively for defense, and a comfortable residence features have been relegated to second or even a third plan. Most researchers believe that the construction unfolded at Svirzhsky, but, rather, in the period when the settlement was ruled by brothers Andrew (Andrzej) and Martin. On the basis of archaeological surveys of the castle, it was concluded that the brothers Svirzhsky during this period was built in Svirzh first stone fortifications. Early castle was square in shape with sides approximately 52h52 meters. At the ends of the building were two towers, of which only one (Western) survives to this day. The presence of the second tower told the remains symmetrical in terms of the structure with thick walls at the east tower and the remnants of the southern facade. Probably the east tower was dismantled during the subsequent large-scale restructuring of the castle in the 17th century. From other buildings of the old castle have survived only fragments of the walls of the lower tiers. Three sides of the castle protected by natural barriers from the fourth most accessible, was dug a deep ditch. On this early stage of construction of the castle there is no information in historical sources, so look first to reconstruct the strongholds only on the basis of materials of excavations and research-preserved complex of buildings. In addition to the castle and brothers founded in Svirzh Roman Catholic diocese in 1481.

1484. The very first known written mention of the castle. Previously, of course, Svirzh met several times in written sources, but there was mentioned a settlement as a whole, rather than its individual architectural objects.

1492. At this year have another early mention of the castle.

Svirzh Castle - the date 1530 on the north portal
 

1530. Survived the first evidence of one of the stages of reconstruction of the castle - the Tower at the gate of the courtyard, above the opening goal, on a stone slab carved the date "1530." These dates are often recorded the completion of some important stages in the formation of architectural complexes. Probably in 1530 ended an important phase of the restructuring and modernization of the castle fortifications. This information is especially valuable because of the fate of the castle in the 16th century, virtually nothing is known.

1627. Svirzh was attacked by the Tartars, who looted and burned the town. But there is no information about how the castle's fate during the attack, whether it was destroyed or survived.

1641. The city with the castle, and, possibly, other possessions, in Svirzhsky buys Tsetner Alexander. From this point begins a new stage in the formation of the castle complex. Tsetnerov old castle belonged until the early 19th century. During this period, mainly formed all the basic features of the castle, which can be seen today. When Tsetnerah also laid the foundation for the planning structure of the Market Square in the central part.

Alexander Tsetner (? - 1667) was a soldier and a warrior to the bone. From a young age he was attracted military service and, later, he participated almost in all the wars waged by Rzeczpospolita in his life. He fought in the Battle of Tsetsoroy (1620), in 1626 - 1629 years of fighting with the Swedes during the wars with Moscow in 1660-s command of a regiment, and distinguished himself at the battle of Chudnova (1660), which ended in heavy defeat of Russian-Cossack army. In 1649, Alexander took part, under the command of Vishnevetzkogo Yarema, in the defense Zbarazh beset by Cossack-Tatar forces, and in 1651 participated in the Battle of Berestechko. Also in 1651, Alexander became kashtelyanom Galician. Due to its significant military merit, Alexander was respected among his contemporaries, although his militancy was a downside - gentleman did not disdain to attack not only the enemies of the Commonwealth, but also their own neighbors, because quite often it filed lawsuits in court.

When Alexander began a radical restructuring of the old castle Svirzhsky. By the time the earlier castle built out of date and could not at the proper level to provide protection to the owner and residents of the town. We can also assume that the castle went to Alexander in a dilapidated state, in connection with which it was decided to upgrade it. Despite its militancy, Alexander was interested in building is not so much a fortress as a fortified residence, which would protect the garrison from their enemies, as well as to the proper level, to provide comfort to the owner. History has not preserved the name of the architect who created the project Svirzhsky castle, but most researchers point out the great similarity of architectural style facade of the castle with the facade of the Royal Arsenal in Lviv, which was built in 1639 - 1646 under the project of Paul Grozditskogo. Because there are reasonable grounds to believe that Paul could have Grozditsky directly related to the construction Svirzhsky castle. Although the castle and was built under the influence of the spirit of the Baroque, a new building bore the features and style of the late Renaissance. Perhaps in the course of the restructuring, the old castle Svirzhsky almost completely ceased to exist, from him to stay only foundations, basements and fragments of walls at the lower tiers.

1640s (?). Reconstruction of the castle, which was posted on 2 levels (terraces) - East and West. The plan looked like a castle complex trapezoidal, elongated along the axis of the north-west - south-east. The wide part zamchischa accounted for the southern (floor) side, and north of the castle gradually narrower width. This planning structure was dictated by the topography of the castle hill. Limestone, extracted from the deepening in the construction of the ditch was probably used for building foundations and walls of the castle. The average thickness of the walls and towers of the castle ranged from 1 to 1.5 meters, depending on the importance of strengthening the area.

Eastern (upper) front yard. Here was located the main courtyard of the castle, consisting of two parts. The main site took more than two thirds of the courtyard, and the northern corps was a small terrace with a balustrade. Go to the terrace led a wide stone grand staircase, located in the center of the body. Along the perimeter of the yard were residential buildings. Northern, eastern and western buildings were one-story with basements. The structure of the internal layout of residential buildings was constructed on a corridor-anfiladnoy scheme, which implies the existence of through the corridor, which adjoined the sides of the living rooms and other rooms of the castle. Today, the exterior walls of residential buildings with windows cut through the typical stone castle embossed frame, but initially, probably in place of windows were slits.
The plan of the castle Svirzhsky 1Plan Svirzhsky castle courtyard 2Vostochny Svirzhsky castle courtyard 1Vostochny Svirzhsky castle courtyard 2Vostochny Svirzhsky castle courtyard 3Vostochny Svirzhsky Castle 4

South Corps - the most interesting from an architectural point of view. In the central part of this 2-storey building are the entrance gates. Gate travel, with an arched vault, passes through the two-tiered, square in plan, the tower. From the outside and from the yard, this arch was decorated with carved stone reliefs in the style portals the late Renaissance. The appearance of portals shaped pilasters on the sides of the arch on pilasters with frieze relied memorial plaque, and was crowned portals of a triangular pediment. Above the arch gate there were two arms - Elite (Jelita) and Przherova (Przerowa), belonging, apparently, Alexander Tsetneru and his wife Anna Zamoyska. By the gate kept a wooden bridge thrown over a deep ditch and resting on stone piers. The bridge was about 20 meters, and its closest to the lock section was lifting. The walls of the southern shell was crowned high triangular pediment with several rows of loopholes in the form of keyholes.

The southern facade of the castle Svirzhsky

South facade Svirzhsky castle. Photo by: Filin (April 2010)

On both sides of the southern enclosure flanked by a 3-tier in terms of square tower with hip roof. Under the tower is a two-tiered basement. The width of the faces of the towers was, on average, about 9 feet, wall thickness - about 1.5 meters. In the walls and towers of the southern shell was from 2 to 4 layers of defense, representing a line of loopholes in the niches. Rectangular windows with stone Renaissance frame, probably cut through the walls and towers of the castle in the later period of its history, when the structure becoming less used as a fortress and, increasingly, as a residential residence. The architecture of the western, eastern and northern corps was more simple. In addition to the 3 mentioned above, the towers of the southern facade (2-arc and first gate) is another tower, fourth, located at the crossroads of northern and western residential block. In structure, it was similar to the corner towers of the southern facade of the castle. Although its size was slightly more massive than the southern tower (the width of her face was about 10 meters), but the thickness of its walls was only about 1 meter. Probably, the north tower did not need a particularly thick walls, as was in the back of the zamchischa, which was securely covered slopes of the hill and lake waters. Another difference of the north tower of the castle from the other towers of the castle was that she did not speak to the line the walls.
Svirzh Castle - Southwestern bashnyaSvirzhskyi castle - view of the bridge gates yugaSvirzh - Gate tower zamkaSvirzhsky Castle - Castle vorotaSvirzhsky - south-east tower 1Svirzhsky Castle - south-east tower 2Svirzhsky Castle - north and the north tower chassis

The western (lower) the economic court. This smaller courtyard bordered on the west side of the walls and towers of the Upper (eastern) yard. The lower court used primarily for accommodation of business services, as well as stables. Both the court communicated with the stone stairway. Probably originally upper courtyard of the castle for safety reasons was the most detached from the bottom, because the upper part of the castle to continue to successfully defend themselves even after the fall of the Lower Court. On the north and west side yard surrounded by one-story buildings with basements, the outside of buildings at the top of the line was set up loopholes. Southern facade of western wing triangular pediment crowned with battlements in the form of keyholes (for example the case of the southern gable of the Upper Court). In the middle of the yard was set up well. At the lower court had a separate entrance on the south side, arranged in an arch, framed by stone rustication. The yard was protected by a square in terms of a 2-tier (?) Tower, topped by a hip roof. The width of the faces of the tower - about 8 feet, wall thickness - about 1 meter. Unlike the other towers of the castle, it narrowed to the top and has been strongly put forward the line of the walls.
Svirzh Castle - general view of the western dvorSvirzhsky Castle - near the western wall of the castle bashniSvirzhsky - Western bashnyaSvirzhsky Castle - West courtyard view iznutriSvirzhsky Castle - view from the west

5 coal tower. At 50 meters from the castle on the opposite side of the trench at the slope hill is one of the most mysterious castle structures - freestanding tower. It is not like other towers of the castle to its structure and by the end it is unclear what role she served in the defense of the castle. A number of researchers believe that this tower was part of the complex of fortifications of the castle early Svirzhsky and date the structure of the end of the 15th century. Today the tower is preserved to a height of 2 storeys and originally was probably a 3-tier. In the faces of the layers were arranged slits, the entrance to the tower located in the lower tier of the west face.
Svirzh Castle - the ruins of the tower 1Svirzhsky Castle - the ruins of the castle tower 2Svirzhsky - the ruins of the tower 3Svirzhsky Castle - the ruins of the castle tower 4Svirzhsky - the ruins of the tower 5Svirzhsky Castle - the ruins of the tower 6

1648 - 1654 years. It is not known in what state the lock when the Cossack revolt broke out under the leadership of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, therefore difficult to say whether the attack took unfinished castle attack, or its construction by this time had not yet been completed. The fate of the castle during this period is foggy, it is known that in 1648, at the very beginning of hostilities, it captured, destroyed and burned the Cossacks or Tartars. The destruction was significant. During the Cossack wars castle could have time to repair. At the expense of the Cossack period in the history of the castle are divided - some historians write about the repeated seizure of the castle by the Cossacks and Tartars, others argue that the lock has successfully assisted the enemy resistance. Anyway, the end of hostilities Castle met in the ruins.

Second half of the 17th century. Alexander began to rebuild their shattered residence here because every time he willingly returned after a new military campaign. Perhaps the final appearance of the castle was formed during this period. It can be assumed that the castle could be faithful dragoons Alexander, who could assist in the defense of the residence of his influential commander.

1667. Alexander Tsetner die castle passed to his son Ian, who followed in the footsteps of his father, making a military career. Ian took part in a number of significant battles. In 1675, the year entrusted to his command of 80 Corps became famous during the famous siege of the castle in Terebovl.

1672. Started in the Polish-Turkish War (1672 - 1676). Huge Turkish-Tatar army moved in the direction of Lvov, devastating everything in its path. Personally commanded the Turkish Sultan Mohammed IV (1642 - 1691). A lot of Polish fortifications, castles, towns and fortresses fell under the blows of the troops. Was no exception Svirzhsky castle, which was captured, plundered and destroyed. The first phase of the war ended with the signing of the Peace Treaty under Buchach (18 (28) October 1672), but when the Polish Diet refused to approve it, the war broke out with renewed vigor.

Probably soon after these events, the castle quickly repaired and strengthened, quickly preparing it for the upcoming military action.

1675. The new phase of the Polish-Turkish War, a powerful Turkish-Tatar army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha Shishman again moved to the Lions. At this time military actions were also a sign of a punitive expedition, because often the captured Poles destroyed building very much, sometimes to the ground. During this period Svirzhsky castle has an important role - along with the locks in Berezhany, Pomoryanah, Peremyshlyanah and some other fortified castle was to take the blow of some military units of the enemy, thereby weakening the onslaught of the Turks and Tatars in Lviv. It was assumed that the defense of the castle and the protection of the entire southern section of the Defense on the outskirts of Lviv will be led by Nicholas Jerome Senyavskaya (1645 - 1683), future hetman dipole crown. In preparations for the attack from the enemy took a major role Pomoryanskomu castle, which was to defend a strong garrison, but by the beginning of hostilities in the castle there were only about 40 soldiers who were left to fend for themselves Pomoryany and retreated to the castle Svirzhsky, joining the ranks of its defenders. It is not known, as hostilities proceeded under Svirzh, and what forces tried to seize the castle, but Svirzhsky stronghold this time withstood the onslaught of the enemy.

1680. Perhaps the lock is not in need of ammunition, because of inventory Kostelnaya property means that even a weapon, attributed to the temple (church is located near the castle), is well-gunpowder and bullets.

Late 17th - first half of the 18th century. About this period in the history of the castle virtually nothing is known.

Second half of the 18th century. It is known that in this period, the castle survived the fire, but the details of this episode of history are unknown. Some researchers admit that the fire could be caused by arson of Russian troops, who in 1748 passed through the lands of Poland during the last phase of the War of Austrian Succession (1740 - 1748). Dominique Tsetner (? - 1804), the owner at the time Svirzh, was exempted from paying taxes for 3 years, that would help him overcome the devastating effects of fire.

Svirzh on the Austrian map second half of the 18th century

1779 - 1782 years. Austrian military cartographers had drawn the so-called "Map of Jiffy", which was recorded and Svirzh Castle. On the map shows a conventional lock strokes (square yard with 4 towers at the corners), ie with little binding to its actual layout. Where great value represents information about the terrain surrounding the castle in the second half of the 18th century. Since the lake, for example, is fixed on the map just west of the castle to the north of it is marked moorland, and on the east side of the castle hill and did dry valley between 2 hills. Probably to this period the system locks on the river will no longer function, and this led to a decrease in lake area.

Late 18th - early 19th century. Svirzh Ignacia belonged Tsetneru (? - 1828). He was known for his passion for collecting and gardens, in particular, he established a botanical garden in Lviv ("Tsetnerovka"), as some historians believe that it is in Ignatius began to emerge in Svirzh first castle park and garden.

Svirzh - a plan for the park
First half of the 19th century. Maintained an illustration that shows the layout of the park Svirzhsky. Researchers believe that the park is shown on the image, never existed - it was a project that apparently has not been fully realized. The plan was to take the park area of ​​about 5 hectares, with about 66% of the park were to cover the green spaces, the remaining 34% of the area and removes the lawn grass. Trees that are going to thoroughly cover the castle hill, had, among other things, to protect the residence from the cold east and north winds. The main part of the park was to accommodate to the east of the castle. These lands were partly swampy and therefore less valuable than the land on Castle Hill, who preferred to use for the development of an orchard and vegetable production. The park covers a dense network of tracks. The park itself and the line of his tracks have been designed in such a way as to make him walking on the most exciting. This goal was achieved by frequent changes of species that are encountered during a walk - the path winds among thickets, then a change of the landscape, and now found himself in front of a meadow, then the so-called Church Mount installed on its side of the statue of St. John, after which it was possible to go to the shore of the lake. In the joints of the tracks were built small platforms on which plan to divide flower beds. It can be assumed that the lack of funding has not allowed a good project to implement in full, however, the park yet appeared.

Svirzh Castle - Peter Piller lithography
19th Century. Was established lithography Peter Piller, through which you can get an idea of ​​shape Svirzhsky lock during this period. An engraving shows a view of the castle from the east (to be precise - from the north-east). An engraving shows that some work on the creation of the park have already been held - castle hill thickly obsazhen trees and shrubs, and walking paths lined the hill. But the most interesting part of the engraving - the image-standing south-east tower, which today is in ruins. Lithograph captures the structure at a time when it was still in good condition. It was a two-tiered tower, covered with a dome and decorated at the top of a small triangular pediments. The dome of the tower was crowned with a lantern. In the 19th century (and probably a century earlier), an old defensive tower was used as a chapel. Obviously, during the reconstruction of the tower into a chapel, its battlements of the second tier were rastesany and turned into high arched "Gothic" windows.

Probably Ignatius was the last of Tsetnerov who owned the castle. Although Ignatius was childless, and the last one dies Tsetnerov only in 1926 (after which the race and broke), Svirzh, however, goes to the new owners. And if the race Svirzhsky, and then sort Tsetnerov owned the castle for quite a long time, since the 19th century castle often changed its owners.

The 1840s. The owner was Svirzh Katharina Magdalena Starzhevska and Pirzhali.

1855. Victor Thaddeus owns Svirzh.

1878. The famous scholar of history and architecture of Galicia Cholovsky Alexander was the first description of the history and architecture Svirzhsky castle. Then the castle, probably owned by Mary Ilasevich.

1882. The surviving inventory of the castle said that the northern corps was in ruins.

1892. In the old inventory of the castle meant that the north-eastern part of the castle is destroyed, apparently by fire.

The 1890s. The owner of the castle was Claudia Tchaikovsky. Vladimir zilch reports that during the second half of the 19th century, Valerian Tchaikovsky, who was given his property Svirzh Castle, held here thorough repair work.

189 (?) Year. Castle goes Felicia, wife of Alexander Kzhechunovicha. The couple did not settle in Svirzh, because the local climate they seem unhealthy. In the end, they decided to sell Svirzh.

189 (?) Year. Svirzh goes to Irene Volanskoy (1871 - 1929), wife (future or present?) Austrian officer Robert de Lyamezana Sahlins (1869 - 1930). At this point, a frequent change of ownership has led to the demise of the castle farm, and his recovery required a significant investment.
Svirzh - view of the bridge and castle vorotaSvirzhsky - view of the gate of the castle rvaSvirzhsky - photo 1890 godovSvirzh - the facade of the castle on the risunkeSvirzh - a plan of the castle

1907. Robert de Lyamezan Sahlins becomes the owner of the castle, which he owned until 1930. In the beginning of his career, Robert de Lyamezan served in the Austrian Imperial Army, and since 1918 - in Polish, where he rose to the rank of major general. It is known that Robert de Lyamezan loved the castle and otherwise caring for the complex of buildings, sparing no resources. He skillfully restored the castle and its interior decorated with all sorts of works of art from private collections.

From the east and south-east to the castle hill belonged beautiful park covering about 3 hectares with walking paths and walkways with a total length of about 1 kilometer. Most of the tracks were strewn with gravel and planted with ornamental shrubs on the sides. South of the castle was laid out orchard, and from the church to the castle stretches the picturesque avenue, decorated with rows of trees and flower beds. The castle has grown a lot of trees, among which came across quite a rare breed. There were growing oaks, acacias, elms, beeches, pines and spruce. An interesting construction of the park was the so-called "glacier", carved, according to extant descriptions of the rock. It was used for storing ice and perishable foods in the summer

September 2, 1914. The First World War had a devastating impact to the castle. In the course of attacks of Russian troops in Galicia castle burned to the ground along with all its rich collection and valuable library, although some values ​​have undoubtedly been pillaged by looters. Private sources report that the castle was attacked with artillery, then a fire broke out in the fire which destroyed a significant part of the complex. But probably, this case had no direct relationship to the fighting, most likely intentionally burned the castle, because here the estate Austrian officer. The castle was seized such a strong flame that according to witnesses it was felt the heat even in a nearby village. Castle premises, residential and farm housing, towers and other parts of the complex faded completely. Burned floors, roof, leaving only blackened walls. After the fire of the entire interior decoration of the palace survived only 2 stone, carved fireplaces, as well as some stone elements of ornaments that decorated the room.
Svirzh Castle after the fire of 1914 - 1Svirzhsky castle after the fire of 1914 - 2Svirzhsky castle after the fire of 1914 - 3Svirzhsky castle after the fire of 1914 - 4Svirzhsky castle after the fire of 1914 - 5

1917 (?). Robert de Lyamezan, who served during that period already in the Polish army, not fearing the catastrophic fire in 1914, begins again to restore and repair the castle. To carry out some works have used the general work of 3 inmates (prisoners?) Russians, who restored the decorative window frames, doors and cornices. But, of course, to restore the castle as a whole and in particular his interiors as before the fire was impossible. Some features of the castle, General decided to modify intentionally. So fire up the roof of the northern and southern (gate), the towers were a low-pitched hipped 4-roofing, restoration and as a result they were replaced by more complex and high roofs sloping shape. This was done in order to make the towers form a baroque style. In the castle brought new furniture, interiors adorned with new paintings and other art objects, but probably it was only a shadow lost in the fire early castle collection. In commemoration of the restoration carried out over the main gate of the outer portal of the castle set up a memorial stone slab with an inscription in Latin: «HAEC-DOMUS-TEMPORE-BELLI-COMBUSTA-ANNO-DOMINI-MCMXVII-REEDIFICATA» («The house was burned during the war, in the year Lord restored in 1917. ")

Published in the same 1919 Polish Galicia guide to authorship Mstislav Orlovich (1881 - 1959) reports that residential castle and visit it is possible, with the consent host, ie Robert De Lyamezana Sahlins.
Svirzh - General Lamezan de Sahlins 1Svirzh - General Lamezan de Sahlins 1Svirzh - General Lamezan de Sahlins 3Svirzhsky Castle - Southern Memorial plitaMaket Svirzhsky Castle 1920 godovMaket Svirzhsky Castle 2

1926. At the end of this year has to repair and restoration work. September 30, 1926 general retires, moves to Svirzh, where he spends the last years of his life.

November 29, 1930. Robert de Lyamezan died. Sons in general was not, of the children he had only a daughter Irene (1904 - 1968), who in 1930 married Tadeusz Komorowski, who became the new owner Svirzh. Tadeusz later become a general division of the Polish Army, the rebel commander of the Home Army and led the famous anti-Nazi Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Thaddeus and Irene were the last private owners of the castle.

1920 - 1930. Park almost did not develop. Shortly after the First World War was an urgent problem of the restoration of the castle burned down, because the park was pushed into the background. Later in the park were minor works - on the right side of the road from the church to the castle, made a tennis court, along the road found the stone benches and tables, and some tracks on zamchische adapted to the horse walks. Before the Second World War the castle park for caring gardener, who lived in his own house, which was located in the southeastern part of the park in the valley between the castle and the adjacent hill. As decorative elements of the park were the ruins of the old tower, a chapel, as well as two columns with ivy - all that remained of the old greenhouse, which was destroyed, probably in 1914.
Svirzh Castle - photo 1930 1Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 2Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 3Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 4Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 5Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 6Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 7
Svirzh Castle - photo 1930 8Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 9Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 10Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 11Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 12Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 13
Svirzh Castle - photo 1930 14Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1930 15Svirzh - the tomb of General Robert De LyamezanaSvirzh - castle park plan in 1930 rokahSvirzh - columns shattered greenhouses

Probably soon after the death of Robert de Lyamezana in the southeastern part of the castle park, castle in the valley between the hill and the adjacent, was built the tomb, which has become an important architectural accent of the park. It found a final resting General and his wife Irene. Shrine of the occupied area of ​​30 square meters. meters. Material for its construction was a bricks and sandstone. Cubic tomb room was on a small platform, which led to the input stage. Ceiling height was about 3 meters. Crowned the structure of 2-meter high triangular pediment characteristic shape, copy the features of the southern facade gable Svirzhsky castle.

1939. Since the beginning of the Second World War and the division of Poland castle remained without official owners.

1942 - 1944 years. Referred to a manager Laschik Boleslav, whose department at that time occupied the rooms of the chateau. During this period the castle park and some of the rooms of the castle you can visit free of charge, subject to the consent of the temporary "owner" of the castle. During the war the park was in relatively good condition. On one of the photo taken in winter 1943 - 1944 period shows that the castle bridge at that time was destroyed, preserved only its stone pillars. Is difficult to say exactly when and under what circumstances, lost his castle bridge.
Svirzh Castle - photo 1940 1Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1940 2

Summer of 1944. "The history of cities and villages of the Ukrainian SSR" is about the next episode. During the battle for the Lions to the Count's estate (probably amke s) placed about 70 wounded soldiers. Soon, the Germans organized a counterattack and took Svirzh. Part of the injured residents hid in their huts, but 25 seriously wounded soldiers were left in the estate, because they could not move. The wounded were not allowed to help, but despite this, the peasants continued to care for soldiers. After 4 days the Germans were driven out of Svirzh. Commander of 38th Army Moskalenko order of the Army announced 14 people thanks Svirzh.

?. After the war, the first decline came the castle park, plantations were cut down by local residents who stoked his furnace valuable species of trees and shrubs. Destroyed the park is quiet, often at night, without any authorization. And soon the fate of the fleet divided and the tomb of General Robert De Lyamezana and his wife. Its decline and looting began in wartime and postwar empty tomb was dismantled, perhaps for the sake of building materials for farm use.

The end of the 1970s. Against the background of a successful project to restore the castle Olesko was decided to adapt to the needs of the Lviv Art Gallery and Svirzh Castle, which would help breathe life into the dilapidated architectural monument. However, these plans were not realized.
Svirzh Castle - photo 1970 godaSvirzhsky Castle - photo 1970 2Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1975 1Svirzhsky Castle - photo 1975 2

Spring of 1977. At a joint meeting of the Construction Committee and the Presidium of USSR board of the House of Architects proposal has been made to use the castle as Svirzhsky House creativity of architects. Offer support, later it was approved by the USSR Union of Architects.

1978. In the castle were taken Svirzhsky episodes of the famous film "D'Artanyan and the Three Musketeers," directed by George Jungvald-Khilkevich. Castle "playing" multiple roles - from the estate of his father, D'Artanyan in Gascony to Betyunskogo monastery, within whose walls had been poisoned Constance. Personnel film can be seen in what a deplorable state are the southern facade of the castle.

1979. The castle can be seen in a cameo role in a film background, "Savage Hunt of King Stach."
Savage Hunt of King Stach - Svirzh Castle Hunt of King Stach 1Dikaya - Svirzh Castle 2

In December 1978. Lviv Oblast Executive Committee adopted a resolution "On the transfer lock in with. Svirzh long-term lease of the USSR Union of Architects. "

The project for the restoration and adaptation to new needs of the castle ordered Lviv interregional specialized scientific restoration workshops, the main architect of which at that time was Ivan Mogitych. The project was created based on the then existing standards for holiday homes. In other words - the goal of the project was not so much in the preservation of monuments of architecture, how to adapt to the needs of his pension. According to the plan room of the castle were to contain from 80 to 100 people, but so many rooms in the castle at the time was not and to implement the project in life decided to "recreate a historic volume of the castle, destroyed during the First World War." The premises of the castle were to be adapted for a comfortable stay guests - to heating, gas, water, build a sewer, plant biological treatment and a transformer substation. The outer area of ​​the castle was to get electric lighting.

Most of the work carried out affected the external appearance of the western wing, the upper and lower castle yards. It is known that the body was destroyed, probably during the First World War, then he was not restored in full. During the "restoration" at this place was built three-storey building, which undoubtedly had much to do with authenticity. May be considered controversial and several other works on the "restoration" of the castle.

East (top) courtyard terrace. In the 2 towers flanking the southern building, bedrooms were located, and the room between the towers and buildings intended for administrative services. In the western wing on a 3-floor planned to equip half the planned places to live. Basement under the southern and western buildings have adapted to economic needs. In the North Building to accommodate the club was part of the premises - entrance hall, lounge, bedroom with fireplace, library and conference hall for 100 people. The ground floor was planned to place the auxiliary building. East building was adapted for the bedrooms with bathrooms on 2 levels. Bathrooms Room located at mezzanine. North Tower were taken for storage tanks with water, which could be used for household purposes and for fire safety. On the second floor of the tower housed the dining room and utility room.

The western (lower) court, terrace. It was planned to accommodate a full catering department. Two large rooms were set aside for dining and other rooms were used as the technological part of the catering department. In several sections of the basement floors were lowered, so that was increased by the amount of space. This allowed the place where cold rooms, bathrooms and storage. Lowered floors of basements by cutting the limestone foundation on which the castle stands. 1st floor west tower of the castle was taken by the ventilation chamber, on the 2nd floor dining room is placed a reserve, which led from the room built flight catering.

1979. The beginning of the restoration work to transform the castle into House of Architects. Funding went from the state budget. At that time, in the wake of the Moscow Olympics in 1980 funds were allocated for the protection and restoration of monuments of architecture, so that the first special funding problems were observed.

1980. Olympics are over, soon ceased, and funding from the state budget. However, the infrastructure construction of the castle (water, gas, heating, electricity, sewage, etc.) did not stop, because these works are funded by the USSR Union of Architects. Subsequently, these works were performed. At the same time were restored white stone portals to travel the central tower, stone staircases and shifted curbs have been replaced by the overlap in the premises of the economic court. Work was carried out and to rebuild the interior of castle rooms.

1982. By order of the USSR Council of Ministers in the House of creativity has been fixed surrounding the castle area of ​​25 hectares. The territory of the Union of Architects handed in perpetual and free use. It was created lake of 9.5 hectares with two islands. This territory is located sports courts for tennis, basketball and volleyball courts and parking. Driveways, sidewalks and pedestrian paths were paved area of ​​the castle.

1985. Funding for the restoration was resumed, provided that the use of complex structures on the appointment begins immediately after the restoration.

Svirzh - south of the castle housing plan

1992. The restoration has not yet been completed, it was decided to introduce interlocking housing in operation as soon as available. In the first place - a multi-storey western wing with 40 seats, the northern housing with club rooms and catering department. To translate this idea into reality, it was necessary first of all, put into service catering department, but due to months of disputes over payment for work performed easting and not put into operation.

In January 1993. According to official figures the planned restoration and construction work in a castle made of 72%. To quickly put the object into operation, it was decided as an experiment to transmit lock in long-term lease to the State Forestry Association "Lvіvlіs." Then, on the basis of the castle were planning a hunting "Svіrzh." The experiment can be considered a failure because he did not bring positive results, and the castle continued to gradually decline. Union of Architects of Ukraine with the support of other organizations and artists tried to return the castle to the Office.

1997. Lviv regional administration sends Svirzhsky lock the free use of the Union of Architects to complete its restoration and the introduction of the House of creativity in the operation.

The late 1990s - early 2000s. The decline of the castle continues. Work on its repair is not carried out, there is no funding. As a result, the castle remained in the care of one man - Vladimir Mandzyaka that the list of staff listed the castle for 30 years. He stayed to look after the castle even after stopped payment of salaries and other staff members resigned. Paradoxically - one of the best castles in Lviv region, for which secured 25 hectares of land holdings, remained in the custody of a person. Since the lock was not guarded, complex structures it is not obsuzhival staff, and repairs were not completed, a valuable monument for years remained closed to tour groups. With his visit had to rely on luck or by prior agreement - if Vladimir Mandzyak was in place, and he was willing and able to show the lock, then the gates were opened to the guests, and many tourists had to be content with the contemplation of the castle from the outside.
Svirzh Castle - Castle 1Svirzhsky room - the room 2Svirzhsky Castle - one of the ceiling komnatSvirzhsky Castle - Castle kaminSvirzhsky Portal - Northern korpusaSvirzhsky Castle - the southeast corner of Superior Court

2009. The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine introduced Svirzhsky lock in a list of objects that can be transferred to concession. Thus, due to the decision taken by the castle has become possible to transfer long-term leases on favorable terms to an individual. The new owner is required by law to restore the castle at his own expense or the expense of investors, and also had the right to receive income from the use of an architectural monument. Concession - a widespread practice in Europe, positively affects the state of architectural monuments, but for Ukraine this practice is new. In a concession monuments in Ukraine many enemies as there is no confidence in the "patrons", causing the locks to take under his wing.

May 27, 2010. At the meeting, "For Regіonіv" in Lviv, Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych announced the initiative, according to which the reserve should be created "Galitska Crown", which unites nine castles in Lviv region. The composition of the reserve were to enter the following locks: Zolochiv, Pidhirtsi, Olesko, Pomoryany, Brody, Dobromila, Svirzh, Old Village and Zholkva. Documents needed to create a reserve, were submitted for consideration.

November 11, 2010. The representative of the Lviv regional state administration said that Svirzh Castle is being prepared for the concession. At the briefing it was noted that due to lack of funding, "10-15 years there was nothing done."

Our days. The castle is relatively well preserved, thanks to a remarkably good arrangement and harmony of architectural forms this structure is one of the most beautiful and picturesque castles not only in Lviv region, but the whole of Ukraine. Most of the surviving buildings of the complex belong to the 2nd half of the 17th century, the period when the site of the old castle was built new fortified residence of the owners Svirzh. According to surveys of architectural buildings of the castle of the old fortifications of the 2nd half of the 15th - 16th centuries there were only fragments of the lower layers of the walls, which are included in the scope of the later castle. At a time when the castle trying to adapt more to the needs of housing, some loopholes rastesali windows, framed by stone-carved frames. These frames, carved portals of lock gates and a couple of fireplaces - this is all that remains of the decoration of the old castle, all the rest perished in the fire of 1914. Survived one more interesting detail decoration of the castle - embossed griffin, a figure which adorns the facade of the west corner tower of the Upper Castle yard. Of all the buildings of the castle just west building, separating two castle courtyard, built recently, in 1980 (?), Respectively. The remaining corps authentic.

In the southwestern part of the ruins of the old zamchischa defense towers, which some centuries previously used as a chapel, and before that tower played a role (not completely clarify) in defense of the castle. Today the tower is preserved to a height of 2 storeys (about 6 meters). In its lower tier visible authentic loopholes, loopholes tier 2 were rastesany in lancet windows, the remains of which can be seen today. In the masonry can be seen blotches of brick, which, probably, to the late period, when the tower was rebuilt in the chapel.

Ukraine - Lviv

Zolochiv Castle

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Posted on 20.11.11

Last Updated 20.11.11

Zolochiv Castle
Attractions - Castles of Lviv


Things to Do in Lviv, but landmarks of the city, and include locks, located in the Lviv region. Lviv Region is rich in castles, one of which is Zolochiv castle. Using the book "Guide Lviv" or site "guide in Lviv", you can get an idea of ​​the place where we wanted to go.

Obviously, the site Zolochiv strongholds formerly stood an ancient fortress, which was burned by the Tartars. The city is located on the former Zolochiv important trade route, which united with the East 3apad and South Europe. The first mention of 3olocheve dated 1442 year.

Magdeburg Law city received March 15, 1523. At that time there existed a large Armenian community. In 1532 Stanislav Seninsky Zolochev owner sold it to Andrew Gurko, Poznan castellan.

Then the town and fortress Zolochiv went to Jakub Sobieski. The latter began to actively improve the castle's defense system, in particular, has strengthened its four bastions. The length of each of the defensive wall was more than 100 m and reached 11 m in height. Moat surrounding the castle Zolochevsky, not filled with water, but had a decent depth, and in his bed were driven stakes. Shafts before the walls have arranged so that in case of enemy attack cannon balls fell into the earth mounds, without damaging the tile walls.


In XVII century the castle was known for his Zolochevsky level of comfort. There were a few cutting-edge water closet at a time (compared to the current museum is only one!). In a separate room was the door to the secret passage connecting the office and King's treasury. It is believed that this could be the so-called "long ear" - a system by which managed to listen to conversations workers on the ground floor. From the office of King is another secret passage led to the ramparts. At any time of the King, not known for his servants, to leave the zamok.V 1672 Zolochiv castle destroyed the Turkish army, and after his return to the same Polish state prisoners Turks rebuilt the structure. After the death of John III in the castle Zolochinskliy sometimes lived Prince Jacob (d. 1737). 3atem lock together with other estates became the property of the family Radziwill, and eventually fell into disrepair. In 1802, the purchased 3olochev landlords Komarnicki, adapting the building for residential purposes. In 1840 the owners sold the castle Austrian government under the military barracks. From 1872, there was also organized a prison. Black times have come in 1939 when the Soviet government held a torture chamber in the palace of the NKVD. By June 1941, "tips" are tortured about 700 people. Tells about one of the museum.

Another attraction of the castle are two huge stone, found near the city, outside the village Novoselki. One of them wrote out in Gothic letters. On the other - two intertwined wreath "dead» u «live». At the intersection with the unknown to an opening. There have been numerous attempts to explain the origin and destination of stones, but the final version still does not.

 

Ukraine - Lviv

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