Feofania - this country, and last village on the southern outskirts of Kiev (now in Goloseyevsky area). Located between Holosievo, attics, and Pirogovo Zotov. Previously known as Feofania Shahraivschina later Lazarovschina. Here lived a pious beekeeper Lazarus. Lazarovschina belonged Pechersk monastery, later became the property of the Metropolitan of Kiev - Peter Graves (1632-1647 gg.) Sylvester and Kosovo (1647-1657 gg.) Latest Feofaniya gave their home an official from whom it was taken over by the monastery of St. Sophia. In 1776 she was selected to the treasury.
Saint Panteleymon nunnery
In 1800, Bishop Theophanes Lazarovschinoy interested Shiyanov - vicar of the Metropolitan of Kiev and of the Holy Monastery of St. Michael's. In the same year began the construction of a country house and the vicar of the church in honor of the miracle of the Archangel Michael. Construction was completed in 1803. The then Metropolitan of Kiev Gabriel blessed land called Feofania. In addition to the church and the vicar of Theophany House were also built facilities for the brethren and farm buildings.
Saint Panteleymon Cathedral
However, the transfer of Bishop Theophanes to another area the department has come to desolation. In the years 1836-1841 as vicar and rector of St. Michael Monastery was Innocent, who loved Feofaniya for the opportunity to be alone. All the hills, hollows, creeks and ponds received the Gospel from him the title. To all the beautiful places were laid out paths, pavilions arranged. The next twenty years vicars were not interested in this area.
The revival of the Theophany began in 1861 when Bishop Seraphim (Aretinsky), rector of St. Michael Monastery, decided to create this small monastery and requested that it experienced elder celibate priest Boniface. Previously built the temple and the premises have been renovated, near the temple there was a wooden belfry.
In 1865 o.Vonifaty began to build a new summer home for the vicar, and in 1867 on the site of an old house built a new stone church of All Saints.
In the early twentieth century, Theophany was 22 to 70 monks and novices. In the monastery there were 4 of the temple: the Miracle of the Archangel Michael, All Saints, the Vladimir Icon of the Mother of God and the new Cathedral of Great Martyr. Panteleimon (1910).
Vsihsvyatska church and convent cell
July 1, 1901 the Holy Synod - reporting Theognost Eminence, Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia, the result of the application Reverend Sergius, Bishop of Uman, the abbot of the Kiev Monastery of St. Michael - defined: Monastic dormitory "Feofania" and that "there is near Kiev, in turn cenobitic men's monastery, with a note thereof in the Kiev monastery of St. Michael's. "Until now, the monastery was Feofania farm in a country house, villa vikariatskom Reverend Rector of St. Michael Monastery and must have been according to the monastery. From now on there is a skit Feofania own funds.
Panteleimon Cathedral was built in 1910-12 by architect EF Ermakov. Cathedral in the 1920s, was shut down and looted. For a time it housed an orphanage. After the war, the monastery functioned for a while again, but at the end of the 1940s, the monastery and church itself came under the leadership of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. In cells constructed and installed in the cathedral of the first Soviet computers, which worked on the development of academician Lebedev (named in honor of his street, which goes to the monastery).
Now the monastery has a nice modern look. Especially cells that have little resemblance to the cells. Near the monastery is a park-monument of landscape architecture "Feofania", which has an area of 152 hectares.
The idea of building the temple in Kiev, dedicated prince Vladimir, Metropolitan Filaret Amfiteatrov matured. He initiated the construction of the temple fundraiser, which began in 1852. Drafting Cathedral commissioned the famous architect of that time Ivan Shtromu. Sketching the future of the cathedral by Emperor Nicholas the First. The project cathedral was to have thirteen domes and huge size.
St. Vladimir's Cathedral in the early XX century
Closing of the cathedral took place in 1862. Some time construction prosuvalosya successfully. But in 1864, started having problems with arches, which did not survive its own weight and parted. Began the destruction of the unfinished building. Architect accused workers who behaved with reckless construction. There began the long search for culprits. Architect desperately fought against the critics, but his reputation did not help, because to identify the causes of the accident was sent to Kyiv John Shtrom. Finally, Beretta removed from the construction.
Work stopped, because no one dared to take responsibility for their continuation. The walls could hardly stand, and they were strengthened by buttresses. This sad procrastination only 1875, when Emperor Alexander II arrived to Kyiv, saw the unfinished site. Instantly extra money was found, and came to the city of world renown expert - a scientist, builder of St. Petersburg Bernhard Rudolf. His figures became the basis for further construction. The walls of the cathedral protected from falling by special porches - buttresses. As for a responsible builder, he proposed his pupil, 28-year-old Vladimir Nikolayev, who recently was appointed diocesan architect of Kiev. Young architect perfectly coped with difficult tasks. In 1882 the building was actually over. Remained interior of the cathedral.
Renowned expert in art history and archeology professor Adrian Prahov was crazy turning the cathedral into the treasury of modern religious art. Almost all took his idea seriously. But Prakhov using St. Petersburg in 1885 managed to occupy the post of head of the decoration of the cathedral. He invited the best specialists to work: Viktor Vasnetsov and Mikhail Nesterov, brothers Alexander and Paul Svyedomskyh, William Kotarbinskoho, Michael Wrubel, Ukrainian artists Pymonenka and Sergey Kostenko. And it was not possible. Despite the chronic shortage of funds because of complaints about alleged excessive bold creativity of artists and very long period of painting - 11 years, Prahova plan was implemented. Painting the cathedral with high craftsmanship, extraordinary emotional tension and the true historic environment soon became a work of monumental art of the nineteenth century.
Murals of the temple
This veVasnetsovlychnyy temple started functioning from September 1896. It was built in Russian style psevdovizantiyskomu.
Vasnetsov's painting belongs to the main nave of the cathedral, which, in addition to religious subjects, a large place occupied by historical songs - "Baptism of Rus", "Baptism of Vladimir," portraits of canonized saints: Vladimir, Andrew Bogolyubsky, Alexander Nevsky, Princess Olga, and others.
In Vladimir's Cathedral today are relics of Varvara, relikviyar which in the 18th century produced Kyiv goldsmith Samiylo Rostov, and the relics of St. Macarius.
St. Sophia Cathedral and Monastery
Kiev Saint Sophia - the greatest architectural structure in Ukraine. Who can say that it is not - let me cast the first stone. I'm ready to reflect stones (especially considering that this building, I think one of the greatest not only in Ukraine but also in the world).
St. Sophia Cathedral - is an architectural story (especially if you look at it from the monastery's bell tower). It's fantastic when you consider almost millennial age of construction, the fact that the walls of the Cathedral of the greatest Russian prince was buried and many of his descendants, that the cathedral does not look grumblers and that he is a model of this architecture UKRAINIAN (even considering that it was built Migrant workers from the Byzantine Empire).
Sofia Kiev - Ukraine's architectural soul, it's architectural soul of the capital - Kyiv. This building, which is not ashamed to brag and show that you can be the envy of foreigners: "You see, we have" (and they will try to surprise find of the dome of the cathedral, and they did not work). This facility can boast even before the Russians: "You have gas? So look what we have - some of which are molded your ". While both Russian and Belarusians consider Sophia and her little church, because Kiev - the "mother of Russian cities".
St. Sophia Cathedral - the oldest Russian church, among those who survived. His age was only Church of the Tithes. But the building is destroyed by the Mongol-Tatars. Has long been thought that Sophia built Yaroslav the Wise in 1037. Accordingly, the ancient monument was a princely times Chernigov Transfiguration Cathedral (1033-1034 gg.). The fact that Sophia was built in Jaroslaw in 1037, said Nestor, in his "Chronicle." But he pointed out that in the same year, Duke also built the Golden Gate, and the Annunciation Church at them, and two large monastery. Construction of a complex of large buildings in a single year, even under current conditions is unlikely, but what about building technologies and opportunities for thousands of years. Therefore, researchers have long questioned the date of construction of Sofia, saying that only Nestor concluded Jaroslav construction activity in 1037.
Novgorod chronicle dates from the construction of Sofia in 1017 year. But in this paper a lot of dates in question historians. Despite 20 years of difference in the dates of the two major written sources, the scientists decided - in Sofia in 1017 laid down, and in 1037-meters - finished building. But this is not the end of the study. It was found in the German "Chronicle" Titmara Merzeburgskogo record of the existence of the St. Sophia Cathedral in 1017-1018 gg., In particular about the fire in the cathedral. A detailed study of the "Sermon on Law and Grace," written by Metropolitan Hilarion, allowed to say that in 1022 St. Sophia Cathedral, not only existed, but was already very famous. In addition, Hilary said that construction began Sophia Prince Volodymyr the Great, and completed by his son, Yaroslav. Since Vladimir died in 1015, it has been suggested that Sofia laid even earlier. This assumption is confirmed by the study of graffiti (graffiti), of the cathedral, conducted in the last decade.
Scientific staff of Historical and Cultural Reserve "Sophia of Kyiv" argue that recent studies have shown - the cathedral was laid in 1011 by Vladimir the Great, added onto it, Yaroslav the Wise in 1017, and in 1018 the cathedral was consecrated. So in 2011, should prepare for the 1000-year anniversary? Reserve management assures that the costs to prepare, even though there is a big part of the scientists who do not accept 1011 as the year of the bookmark of the cathedral. But UNESCO, it seems, has already adopted the new date.
St. Sophia Cathedral in the eleventh century. Reconstruction of Y. Aseev, V. Volkov, M. Kresalnoho
St. Sophia Cathedral in 1651. Figure Abraham van VesterfeldHagia Sophia (Wisdom) was constructed by analogy with the St. Sophia Cathedral of Constantinople, as the main building of the state. It was built by Byzantine masters, but he does not copy the Byzantine Sofia. The appearance of this building in the Russian capital marked the emergence of "second Jerusalem" (so called Kiev, not Moscow, as we now try to prove the "big brother").
According to the prince's plans for St. Sophia Cathedral became the main church of Kievan Rus, the residence of the metropolitan of Kiev, and the square outside the cathedral - the main area of the state, which were going to council, councils, princes repeatedly made speeches to the people.
After the death of Yaroslav the Rus captured a terrible crisis associated with tough struggle for the princes of Kievan principality. Felt the this crisis and the Hagia Sophia: it robbed several times and even tried to burn (1180).
December 6, 1240, Kiev was captured by the army of Batu Khan. The last defenders of the city died under the ruins of old stone buildings of Russia - Church of the Tithes. But Sofia was lucky - though her and robbed, but left intact. And ten years later the church was restored as the spiritual and historical center of the city and the Principality, the center of the metropolis and the main temple of 19 dioceses.
In 1246 through the efforts of Daniel Galicia has created a new Diocese with the center in Galicia. She took over the functions of an all-Russian. Metropolitan Daniel was ordained nominee - Cyril II. After a while a new metropolitan moved to Kiev, the old residence of the Metropolitans - St. Sophia Cathedral. This happened, probably after 1264 (after the death of Daniel Galicia). In 1267 Cyril II has received from the Khan Mangu Timur label on the power of the Horde toleration of the Orthodox Church. The clergy exempted from taxes, and recognized the church property untouchable.
St. Sophia Cathedral in 1846 (picture Michael Sarzyna). Even three-storey bell tower.
Hagia Sophia is a four-bell. Photo late nineteenth century
In the 14th century South-West Russia invaded Lithuania. A paradoxical situation when the Metropolitan of Kiev and All Russia was in the capital of another country. Lithuanian princes decided to change this situation and have the Patriarch of Constantinople branch of the Kiev Metropolitan in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It happened in 1375. Metropolitan of Kiev called "Kiev, Russian and Lithuanian." At the same time, Moscow also called Metropolitan of Kiev. Nonsense!
In 1390, the two metropolitan united again. Contributed to this Tsamblak Metropolitan Cyprian. This metropolitan once again repaired the St. Sophia Cathedral. His successor, Metropolitan Photius finally took the pro-Moscow stance. In Kiev he came only for the active collection of church taxes. Again, Orthodox Metropolitan of Lithuania was a subject of the Moscow principality. This situation allowed the Lithuanian prince Vytautas. In 1414 he won a single metropolis in Lithuania. Its center was only two years spent in Kiev. Since 1416 the residence of the metropolitans transferred to the city of Vilna. Metropolitans called themselves the Kiev, Galicia and All Russia. But at the same time another 45 years, Metropolitan of Moscow and called themselves the Kiev and All Russia.
In the late 15th century the pressure on the Orthodox Church from the Catholic Church. Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Casimir IV in 1481 issued an order prohibiting new construction and renovation of old Orthodox churches. For Sophia Cathedral began on hard times. Metropolitan at the time was Makarios - a prominent church figure, who was canonized in the future. He steadfastly withstood incredible pressure from the Catholic clergy and the Orthodox Church tried to keep a high level. In 1497 Makarios was killed. According to one version he was killed by the Tatars, on the other - it was a political assassination, ordered supporters of Church Union. Makarios body was buried in St. Sophia.
Belfry Sophia Cathedral
In 1595 the cathedral was in worse condition. Here's how it described the Kiev Bishop Joseph Vereschinsky: "... this is not only desecrated the temple of cattle dung (included in it), horses, dogs and pigs ... but, lately, has already started and the destruction of the walls themselves ... "
In 1596 the church adopted the Brest union, and in 1609 he captured the Greek Catholics, led by the henchman of Metropolitan Anthony of Hypatia Potiya Grekovich. During this 9 years Kiev Grekovich drowned in the Dnieper River.
In times of constant religious struggle Sophia Cathedral steadily destroyed, because the Greek-Catholics almost never engaged in maintaining it in good condition. In 1625, the western wall fell. Brewing catastrophe from which the council has saved Peter's grave.
In 1632, Peter has made Tomb of the Seimas of the official restoration of the Russian Orthodox Church. The following year he was appointed Metropolitan of Kiev. Even before the arrival of the new Metropolitan of Kiev Kiev and townspeople drove the Cossacks from Sofia Uniate church and began to prepare for settlement in its metropolitan residence. In 1633, Peter began a global restoration of the Tomb of the cathedral. The work continued for a long time and during the life of the Metropolitan had not been completed. Peter Mogila restored the altar of the temple and the north facade, which was then the main entrance. Cathedral acquired features Renaissance dome was restored in a spherical shape. Although part of the cathedral, in particular gallery, and has not been repaired.
Panorama Kyiv from the bell tower
The results of the work carried out at Peter's Tomb, seen in the figures of Abraham van Vesterfelda. This Dutch artist was a time in the court of the Lithuanian Hetman Janusz Radziwill. During the War of Independence (1648-1654 gg.) In 1651, the army captured the Hetman Kyiv. Temporary residence of the Convent of St. Sophia, was elected. That's when Van Vesterfeld and sketched view of the cathedral. These drawings are invaluable to the modern generation.
After Perejaslavskogo agreement with Moscow, and the death of Bohdan Khmelnytsky began "Ruin." This period was a period of decline for the St. Sophia Cathedral. He lasted three decades and ended only at the end of XVII century, when Hetman Ivan Mazepa was.
Mazepa began active construction of churches in Ukraine. Homes and churches since Blockheads were reduced in the new style - Baroque. Hetman this style very much, but he wanted to see him and Ukrainian features. The architects have tried to embody the desire of Mazepa in numerous churches which were built at his expense. Thus, a new architectural style - a Cossack (mazepinskoe) baroque. This style can be considered almost the only purely Ukrainian, but it became the hallmark of Ukraine in the twentieth century.
Mazeppa has invested heavily in the repair of St. Sophia. The temple was built and completed. There were internal open gallery on external galleries built second floor. At the same time build six new caps, who, like the old, acquired features of the Ukrainian baroque and pear-shaped top. St. Sophia's Cathedral for the second time in its history has become a standard Ukrainian church.
Next to the cathedral in 1699-1707 years has grown a magnificent baroque bell tower. This building was a monument in his lifetime and his Mazeppa hramostroitelnoy activity. First tower had three tiers. After the earthquake of 1742 the top two tiers of partially collapsed. Two years later, began the restoration of the belfry. The works were supervised renowned architect Johann Schadel. He regained the top tiers of the building. In 1851-1852 years. by architect Sparro was added a fourth tier belfry, and it acquired a modern look.
The height of the bell tower of the monastery of St. Sophia - 76 meters. This is one of the tallest bell towers in Ukraine. The Baroque bell tower is very rich in decor and pompezen. Above him in his time working the best Ukrainian masters. In the 18th century bell tower bells were installed. The largest of these was a bell, "Raphael", which weighed 13 tons. From the old bells miraculously survived, only one - the bell "Mazeppa." Others were destroyed in the 30s of last century.
Bell "Mazeppa" - the largest of the old bells in Ukraine. Its height is 125 cm, diameter - 155 cm Weight Precision bells, no one knows because no one has weighed it. Bell was cast in 1705 in Kiev studio wizard Athanasius Petrovich.
Now the bell tower of St. Sophia Cathedral is open to visitors. By purchasing a ticket, anyone can rise to the upper tier and view scenery of the central part of Kiev.
The Refectory ChurchNext to St. Sophia Cathedral is a magnificent baroque palace floors. It is the home of the Metropolitan. Construction of the palace began in 1722. Eight years later, he finished as a one-story building. In 1731-1747 years. has been completed by the second floor. During the 1747-1757 years. was layered attic. These three phases of construction were just the beginning. Each of the Metropolitans in the second half of 18th and 19th centuries in trying to finish some part of the palace. Recent completion took place in 1913.
In Soviet times the house has hosted many metropolitan various organizations and agencies. In the last decades of the Soviet Union of the house occupied by the Museum of Architecture and the USSR Science and Technology Library Construction Committee of Ukraine. Now the building is being renovated.
In the years 1722-1730 were built refectory and a bakery. Refectory combined the monastic dining room and a church. It was erected in the forms of the Ukrainian baroque. In the early 19th century architect Andrew Melensky rebuilt the refectory in the warm church. Now available in room dining room exhibition "Architecture and monumental art in Kiev late X - XI in the first half."
In the second half of the 18th century, next to St. Sophia Cathedral was built in secret great body. In 1786, Sophia monastery was dissolved and no longer need in the cells. Therefore, in the case placed bursa.
In addition to these buildings in the monastery complex included four corps and South Gate Tower. These buildings have been preserved.
In 1843 he began the restoration of St. Sophia, which was led by Academician F. Sun. The work continued for 10 years. It was the most ambitious restoration of all time the cathedral.
From 1919 to 1929 Cathedral of St. Sophia cathedral was the newly formed Ukrainian autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC). In 1929 UAOC eliminated, and the cathedral was closed. Since then, regular services in Sofia will not occur. Five years later, the ensemble of the monastery of St. Sophia St. Sophia was turned into a national park and is open to visitors.
The architecture of St. Sophia, mosaics and necropolis
St. Sophia Cathedral is built of rubble stone and plinfy. Rows of stone and plinfy alternate. Arches and vaults were built without stone. Cementing material is mixed with lime mortar and sand tsemyanki (crushed brick). In the walls of the cathedral at the top of the walled ceramic pitchers golosniki. Thus, facilitated by the construction of walls and improved acoustics in the room of the temple.
Originally Sophia had five apses and five domes. Its walls were plastered. From the west and north of the temple was surrounded by open galleries.
Sophia was built in Byzantine style, but it still was not initially like the other Byzantine churches, and after surgery and completions into a completely original unique architectural masterpiece.
Modern dimensions of the cathedral are: length 37, width 55, height of 29 meters. It has two floors and nine apsidal. Crowned with domes of the Cathedral 19, 8 of which have ancient spherical shape, and 11 - baroque pear.
The interior of the temple is preserved since the 11th century, except for some parts. Since that time were kept 3,000 square meters. meters of frescos and 260 square meters. meters of mosaics. Mosaic Church, which used 177 shades of colors, are of great value. This is especially true six-meter image of the Virgin Oranta (the one that prays), which has survived to our time with little or no restoration work. Wall, on which the image is called "Indestructible wall," as she remained totally whole, even in the worst days for Sofia. None of the invaders, who at different times, captured Kiev, did not raise his hands in Orans. One can only imagine surprise travelers who came to the dilapidated church and saw in front of this great mosaic.
Recently, on the second floor of the cathedral posted yet another unique mosaic - picture "Looking into eternity", made of 15 000 Easter eggs.
Great value for the Ukrainian people has the necropolis of St. Sophia, the oldest of which is the burial sarcophagus of Yaroslav the Wise. Today, among scholars there is no consensus about the origin of the sarcophagus and its age. According to one of the main hypotheses sarcophagus was made in the Chersonese in the 9th century. There were going to bury the power of the Great Clement of Rome. In Kiev sarcophagus brought Vladimir the Great, and in 1054 he became the tomb of Yaroslav. Weight sarcophagus 6 tons.
The sarcophagus of Yaroslav the Wise repeatedly opened. At first it did back in the Russian times. Apparently it was then near Jaroslaw been put skeleton unknown woman aged about 50 years old and male skull (instead of females). At the same time the tomb was robbed (except the bones in the sarcophagus did not).
To research the sarcophagus opened four times: in 1936, 1939, 1964 and 2009. Research is almost proved that the male skeleton belongs to Yaroslav the Wise. Now it is not in the tomb - the body of Grand Duke study.
In addition to Yaroslav buried in St. Sophia Cathedral Kiev Metropolitan Kirill II (1282), St. Macarius (1497), Sylvester Kosov (1657), Gideon Chetvertinskaya (1690), Raphael Zaborovsky (1747), etc. . sarcophagus is kept in the refectory, the tomb of Princess Olga, who moved from the Church of the Tithes.
Numbers denote: 1. St. Sophia Cathedral. 2. The bell tower of the cathedral. 3. House of Metropolitan. 4. The Refectory (warm Sofia). 5. School. 6. Brahma Zaborovsky. 7. South Tower. 8. Brethren's building. 9. Wall. 10. Bakery. 11. Connect Wall Corps.
St. Sophia Cathedral - the world famous monument of architecture and painting of the eleventh century. Establishment of council mentioned in chronicles as in 1017, and during 1037 ..
Immediately struck everyone who crosses the threshold of the famous St. Sophia Cathedral. Somewhere hominlyve remains beyond the present, ever rozstupayutsya, and the distant past ...
When the cathedral was conducted annals were first established and known in Russia and the school library. In honor of the founding Jaroslaw 1037 Sofia Library in front of the cathedral in 1969, was a memorial sign (sculptor I. Kavaleridze).
Great damage was caused to the museum during the Great Patriotic War. Although the Hagia Sophia has not suffered damage, but were looted museum archives, taken valuable frescoes of the XII century with St. Michael's Monastery, which were kept in the temple. Only after the war they returned to the museum in damaged form.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra - Orthodox monastery founded in 1051 by monks Anthony and Theodosius in caves near the princely summer residence near Kyiv Brestová ...
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra - Orthodox monastery founded in 1051 by monks Anthony and Theodosius in caves near the summer residence of the princely Brestová near Kyiv.
In the eleventh century the monastery became a center for the dissemination and adoption of Christianity in Kievan Rus. In the twelfth century the monastery was granted the status of "Laura" - the great master of the monastery.
In the eighteenth century, Kiev-Pechersk Lavra was the biggest feudal lord church in Ukraine. She belonged to the three cities, seven towns, about two hundred villages and hamlets, more than seventy thousand serfs, two paper factories, eleven tsehlovyh and six glass factories, more than one hundred sixty vynokuren and windmills, about two hundred pubs, two stud.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra was subject to many small monasteries and so named the desert (including Kytayevska, St. Nicholas and the other near Kyiv) from their lands and serfs in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus.
At the time, the Kyiv Lavra Pechervska played an important role in the development of ancient culture, was the center of the annals. This translated into Church Slavonic and copied works of foreign authors. In the monastery Famous writers Nestor (author of "lead vremennыh years"), Nikon, Silvestre. In the thirteenth century was composed of "Kyiv-Pechersk patericon" - an important source of history of Kyiv.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra carried out extensive construction since the eleventh century (the Assumption Cathedral, Trinity Church of the gate). At the end of the twelfth century around Kiev-Pechersk Lavra was elevated to defensive wall (in 1240 they were destroyed by hordes of Batu). In 1698-1701, the parallel to it were built new fortress walls and towers with loopholes. In 1731-1744 he built the Great Lavra Bell Tower, the height - 96.52 meters.
There laurels buried many prominent persons, particularly near the refectory - Ukrainian army general judge V. Kochubey and Poltava colonel I. Iskra. In the Church of Our Savior on the Brest - founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgoruky.
In museums and collections located in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, you can see old books manuscripts, a collection of fabrics and embroideries. Of particular interest is the collection of precious metals, ancient engravings and works by contemporary artists.
Buildings Kiev-Pechersk Lavra:
* Great Bell Tower
* Near caves
* Far Caves
* Holy Assumption Cathedral (1073, 2000)
* Vsihsvyatska Church
* Refectory Chamber
* Trinity Gate Church