OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY - Khan Palace
Bakhchisarai palace was not the only khan's residence. In Crimea, there were five so-called Small Khan's palace - an old palace Devlet-Saray palace Ulakly-Saray, Saray Alma, Kacha-Saray, Saray Syuyren. However, it was the country villas Khan's family, and the main seat of the Crimean rulers have always remained Bakhchisarai.
During the two and a half centuries, which served as the residence Hansaray head of the Crimean state, its appearance has changed considerably. Difficult to precisely restore the sequence of changes that eventually led to the folding of our familiar image of the current Khansari. Almost every new governor at the Palace there were new buildings, make repairs. Crimean khans put a monument for the ages in the form of palace buildings, several of which can be seen in Bakhchisarai today.
We have already talked about Sahib I Giray, a monument that serves as the Bakhchisarai. When Devlet I Giray (or later) at the Palais des rose first khan dyurbe at Islyamov III Gera - the second dyurbe and assembly hall, with Bahadir I Giray - one more room for formal receptions. Kaplan I Giray memorialized currently in the construction of the Golden Fountain. Selyamet II Giray elevated pavilion, named after him. His name is imprinted on many buildings of the Palace (in particular, Big Khan Mosque) restored them after the fire that almost destroyed the palace during the Russian invasion. Arslan Giray built next to the Khan Mosque madrassa. Crimea Garay erected a fine dyurbe Dilara-bikech, "Fountain of Tears" and the richly decorated interior rooms of the Palace. How to say the Turkish traveler 17. "Each building is built by someone from padishahs (ie Khans). Khan Palace - the real kind of chronicle of Hera, many of whom contributed to its grandeur.
Palace in the first half of 17 century.
Over time, changing the architectural and ornamental styles: lucid patterns murals 17. Depicting bunches of grapes and slabs of marble, were replaced by elegant floral compositions in the style of "Crimean Rococo, to replace the solemn echoing halls of the 16 th century in the 18 century, the Palace began to build a light kiosk construction. The list goes on: careful study of the art history of the Palace can give a pretty clear cut alternation of styles in the Crimean Tatar architecture.
Last Crimean khan Şahin Giray, went down in history as a great adventurer, killing as a result of their own country, had the intention to move the Crimean capital of Bakhchisarai in Kef (now Feodosia). He even began building a new residence - but lost power in 1783, did not have time to implement his plan.
In the imperial period palace is managed by the Interior Ministry. Here resided police officer, with the permission of the governor allowed the important guests to inspect the former residence of the khan. Occasionally visited the Palace of the emperors and members of the royal family - of course, that's the reason the object was "secure" and access to it was open not for everyone. An exception was made during the Crimean War, 1854-55, when the hospital was placed here.
After the February Revolution found many willing to assign a unique monument - but, fortunately, there were people (artist Useinov Bodaninsky), who managed to persuade the interim government to organize a museum. Thanks Bodaninskomu Palace since then and today is a museum institution.
That image, which Hansaray has now, in general formed in 18. When the ornamental art of building and the Crimean Khanate reached heights of excellence.
Palace - a rare and magnificent monument of architectural art, but today we face a shadow of its former greatness. Fire, arranged without any military need to break into the royal Bakhchisaraj Field Marshal Munnich in 1736, has not brought such harm to the Palace as a "restoration" of 19 century. Wounds minihovskogo rout were quickly healed Selyametom Hera II and other Khans, quickly returned the Palace of his former appearance, and even make it more modern. However, numerous repairs that occurred after the Russian annexation of Crimea in 1783 that brought a little palace, except the damage.
Bakhchisarai in the first half of 19.
The history of these repairs began in 1787, when the palace was prepared for the arrival of Bakhchisarai Catherine II. As a rule, and in the future, such work coincided with the preparation of the Palace to receive next crowned guest. Most often, repairs were carried out with random people, but when it undertook for professionals - they have little interest in the traditions of local architecture, going to the repair of the Palace of the standard yardstick. As a result, the inner chambers Khansari remade with "European" mode in the worst case of the provincial bad taste, inimitable painting of court artists zamalevyvalis fantasies who took up his brush retired non-commissioned officers (these "artists" have been cheaper just to hire), and old buildings, instead of repair, simply communicated . For example, in the 1820-ies. Architect Kolodin destroyed 3 of 4 buildings harem, the Winter Palace, a vast leisure complex and many other valuable buildings.
Kings angry at the distortion of the exotic appearance of the palace, the auditors found flaws in the estimates - but to help crippled the monument is, of course, no longer could. In the same spirit of artisans worked on the restoration until 1930. Suffice it to say that over the past two centuries, the area of the palace complex was reduced from 18 to 4 ha.
Scientifically-based restoration began only in 1960. - And thanks to her general view Khansari today is much closer to the original than it was 20-30 years ago. In 2003, the Palace has launched a new series of repair and restoration work, manufacturers are under strict scientific control trying bit by bit to restore the original and unique look of the original Khan's residence.