||State Historical-Architectural Reserve "Khotyn fortress" (Khotyn Chernivtsi region).
The fortress that survived the century and saw its walls during the Ottoman Empire hordes of soldiers, rebels Mucha, people's avengers babe soldiers Dmitry Vishnevetskogo, Peter Doroshenko ...
Located on major transport routes, Khotyn always attracted invaders. In order to protect them from the fortress was built, which survived the century and saw its walls during the Ottoman Empire hordes of soldiers, rebels Mucha, people's avengers babe soldiers Dmitry Vishnevetskogo, Peter Doroshenko. During the liberation war of Ukrainian people against the Polish gentry in Khotin twice joined forces of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Khotin that attracts tourists from around the world, one of the oldest cities in Ukraine, recently celebrated its 1000th anniversary. At the beginning of XI century. Kyiv Prince Volodymyr the Great created a system of border fortresses in the west and south of the state, including Chernivtsi.
Name the city probably comes from the verb "want" this place has always been desirable for the ancient settlers, they always wanted to live in this beautiful and rich land (other versions explaining the origin of the city name from the Slavic name Khotin or on behalf of the leader daks Kotyzona ).
At first it was small, built by East Slavs in place of the ancient settlement of wooden fortress, which protected them from the many conquerors. Along with it while it existed an unfortified settlement. Its territory, archaeologists found the remains of dwellings napivzemlyankovyh-heater kilns that date back to IX-X century. And at a depth of 1,2-1,4 m was the cultural layer VII-VIII century.
Especially large settlements Khotyn was in XI-XIII centuries. When he was part of Kievan Rus. Then he held the territory of more than 20 hectares. Historians have proved the thesis that the castle and town Khotyn come from the very beginning of XI century.
After the Mongol-Tatar conquest of Russia Hotina role as one of the most important outposts of Galicia-Volyn principality in the southwest has grown even more. Its fortifications guarding an important crossing of the Dniester and suppressed predatory attack nomads.
Prince Danilo Galician, although he was forced to surrender to the Golden Horde, not abandoned the fight with her. He built new and strengthened ukriplyuvav old fortress. In carrying out his will, General Discussion, 40-50s of XIII century. instead of wooden built of stone fortifications.
The first stone castle was small. It was located at the Cape, where today stands the north tower and extending south to the present commandant of the palace. For centuries it was repeatedly reconstructed and expanded, destroyed the invaders and rebuilt again.
At the end of XIV century. Khotin joined the Moldavian state. Voevoda Stephen III the Great greatly expanded the borders of fortress. It was erected wall width 5 and height 40 meters. In a fortress were dug deep cellars, which served as premises for the soldiers. During the XV-XVI centuries. Khotyn fortress was the residence of Moldovan inhabitants.
Thanks to solid rock and the favorable location, Khotyn became the center of crafts and trade, which in turn contributed to the flourishing culture and economy of the city. It states, inter alia, handwriting Hotinskaya Gospel XIV. In the General Discussion at the time held the largest fairs in the Moldavian principality, which came merchants from different countries of Eastern and Western Europe. The city was an important customs point in European-Asian trade.
Still, we can see the old house Khotyn customs. In the second half of XVI century. from Khotyn Fair in Moldavian treasury received a huge amount of money - 10,000 gold a year. In the summer of 1538 during the siege of the castle of Polish army led by Count Jan Tarnowski had destroyed part of the walls and towers. In 1540-1544 he rebuilt them.
After the fall of the Moldavian principality town and fortress passed into the hands of the Turks. They further increase the defensive strength of the fortress, but local people have never tolerated the new oppressors. Assistant in this struggle often played Cossacks. That was in 1563, when the Cossacks, led by legendary Dmitry Vishnevetshiy (Bayda) occupied the fortress and began negotiations with the Moldovan host of common action against Turkey. A betrayal of Moldavian boyars detachment of Cossacks was crushed, and Dmitry Vyshnevetsky was executed in Constantinople.
In 1615 Polish troops occupied Chernivtsi. After Tsetsorskoyi war in 1620 between Poland and Turkey, in which Polish troops were defeated, and the great crown hetman Stanislaw Zhulkevskyy died, became the main outpost Khotin defense against Turkish invasion.
In September - early October 1621 near the walls of the fortress were Khotyn Khotyn famous events of the war, which glorified Cossacks and their commander Pyotr Konashevich Sagaydachnogo and became zlamnym moment in the history of the Ottoman Empire. Victory at Khotin saved Europe from invasion janissaries, made a strong impression on all people and found its echo in the literature.
After peace Khotyn fortress was returned Moldavian master, but it actually controlled by the Turks. On both banks of the Dniester River, along which the border, rose and confronted each other with two mighty fortress - Khotyn and Kamjanetsky.
During the XVII century its owners passed from hand to hand, it owned and Polish kings, feudal lords and Turkish, has been liberated city Cossacks. During the liberation war in Khotyn 1650-1653 biennium were forces of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. November 11, 1673 Crown Hetman Jan Sobieski led 30000th Polish-Lithuanian-Cossack army utterly defeated in Khotyn 40000th Turkish army. War with the Turks continued for many years. Only at the beginning of XVIII century the Turks managed to finally gain a foothold in Khotyn and fortress. After the reconstruction of 1712-1718 years (with the help of French engineers) it became the most powerful hub Ottoman defense in eastern Europe.
Although the eighteenth-nineteenth century. fortress gradually lost its defensive significance, for its walls continue to boil battle. She repeatedly storming the Russian troops. In 1739 they take Khotin after defeating the Turks in the Battle of Stavchany which bravely fought the enemies of the Ukrainian, Russians, Georgians and Moldovans.
In 1769-1787 he was the Russians again storming Khotyn fortress. But only after the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 was Khotin went to Russia and became a district center of Bessarabia province. Retreating, the Turks almost completely destroyed Khotin, which was to build gradually.
In 1826 the city was granted Khotyn emblem: the silver gold field tryvezheva citadel, accompanied by top rivnoramennym silver cross on two crossed swords - symbols of protection of land from enemies. The front towers crescent at the poles, and poles at both extremes towers - zastromleni Bunchuk.
In 1832, at the fortress was built a new church of St. Alexander Nevsky. In 1856 the government abolished the status Khotyn fortress as a military facility. The city during the XIX century. rozbudovuvalos on the flat plateau on a regular schedule. According to 1897 census counted 18,126 residents Khotin. After the reform of 1860 in Khotyn have the first industrial enterprise. There were several water mills. At the beginning of XX century. General Discussion operated three breweries, 10 huralen, 4 tobacco factory, sawmill and brickyard, 2nd printing. The town had two hospitals for 45 beds, a pharmacy, operated two dvoklasni county schools (male and female), 2 men and one of my classmates, school private.
Many disasters and suffering to the people of the world and I brought the Civil War. In 1918, on the border Hotynschynu claimed five states: Russia, Ukraine, Moldova's Republic, Austria-Hungary and Romania. November 10, 1918 in Khotin royal troops entered Romania. Started repression and terror. But hotynchany not obey the new occupiers.
In January 1919 an uprising broke antyrumunske. Authorities in more than one hundred villages passed into the hands Khotyn Directorate, headed by YI-Voloshenko Mardar 'yevym. Singapore, supported by the people, decided to expel Romanians from their land and regain freedom.
Within 10 days the participants Khotynska rebellion waged fierce battles with the royal troops. However uvirvavshys February 1 Khotyn invaders committed the massacre of the population. Every day hundreds of people were invaders on the ruins of Khotyn fortress where no one returned. Khotin during '22 became a district center of Romania.
July 6, 1941 to Khotyn again broke invaders - German-Romanian forces. Again began years of terror and suffering. The city in the first days of occupation was set anti-fascist organization that operated throughout the year and led by Kuzma Galkin. Only in August 1942 it was declassified and removed. The city was released April 3, 1944 But in the postwar years Khotin, like all of Ukraine, was influenced by the totalitarian communist system. Independence in 1991 became the embodiment of dreams hotynchan age of their country.
Today Khotin - one of the largest cities in Chernivtsi region, an important industrial, tourist and cultural center of Bukovina. In September 1991, during a celebration on the occasion of 370 anniversary of the Battle of Khotyn opened a monument in honor of Hetman Ukraine Sahaidachny (sculptor I. Gamal).
In Khotyn fortress held shooting many popular films: "Adder", "Zahar Berkut", "Ballad of the valiant knight Ivanhoe," "Three Musketeers", "Black Arrow", "Old Fortress", "Arrows of Robin Hood." Among the recent - film studio adaptation of them. Alexander Dovzhenko's works of the famous Ukrainian writer Yuri Mushketyka "Yasa".
Given the rich historical traditions of the city in 2000 by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine was established Historical and Architectural Reserve "Khotyn fortress." And in September 2002, an ancient city celebrated its 1000th anniversary.